Assertiveness is that ��use of legitimate, acceptable physical force and the expenditure of an unusually high degree of effort to achieve an external goal, with no intent to injure�� (Kent, 2005) and ��sometimes showing a self-confident approach�� (Cashmore, 2008). This might be a kind www.selleckchem.com/products/3-deazaneplanocin-a-dznep.html of vitality (zest) which was suggested by Park and Petersen (2004) as approaching life with energy and excitement. Therefore, exemplars of assertiveness�� items related to sport courage measured by SCS incorporate ��I like to take the initiative in the face of difficulties in my sport��, ��I assert myself even when facing hazardous situations in my sport��. The fourth factor of SCS is VS. Above definitions of courage emphasized that one distinction of courage is relatively high risk taking behaviour which must be present in sport situations.
Risk is from the Italian ��risco�� for ��danger��, risk means exposure to jeopardy. It is a word that crops up a lot. In all sports, athletes often run risks; in some, they put their lives at risk (e.g., extreme sports). Exercise itself is a form of health risk management. So, sport and exercise are full of risk factors (Cashmore, 2008). While there may be economic risks associated with sport (e.g., gambling) and social risks (risk of one��s reputation and social status) of central concern has been the risk of physical injury (and death). A ��culture of risks�� in sport has been indentified largely in the context of the wide spread acceptance of playing through pain and injury (Malcolm, 2008).
Therefore, it could be argued that courage involves relatively high risk situations (perceived by the athlete) rather than an ordinary sport life. It might be suggested that courage is not fearlessness. Rather, it is coping with fear in the face of high risks or dangers. Therefore, VS involves coping with fear. Fear may be no more than the brief thoughts of physical injury that flash through the minds of rugby (or soccer) full back��s fleeting image of another broken nose as he prepares to dive on the ball at the feet of opposing players. In some sports the merest hind of fear might be enough to end careers. All players have doubts and fears, although some may be good at hiding them. Everyone is human and susceptible to fear, fatigue, and indecision (Karageorghis and Terry, 2011).
The result of present research supports the studies related to coping with fear and courageous behaviour (Corlett, 2002; Kilmann et al., 2010; Konter et al., 2013; Martin, 2011; Woodard and Pury, 2007). Fear is ��an emotion associated with Brefeldin_A an actual impending danger or evil��. It is often characterized by the subjective experience of discomfort and arousal. Fear can induce a kind of paralysis in some competitors so that they freeze in the face of a forbidding rival. It can also act as a friend causing exhilaration that facilitates optimum performance�� (Cashmore, 2008).