0 mL of each coffee sample was transferred independently to the c

0 mL of each coffee sample was transferred independently to the cell containing 10 mL of acetate buffer solution (0.1 mol L−1, pH 6.0) and successive additions of Cu(II) standard solution were performed. After each addition, square wave voltammograms were recorded, also in triplicate, using the optimised experimental conditions. The electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) measurements for the validation of the present procedure were carried

out with a Perkin–Elmer AAnalyst 100 atomic Olaparib clinical trial absorption spectrometer (Norwalk, CT, USA) interfaced with a PC. Unspecific light absorption was corrected by continuum light source (deuterium lamp) background correction. A hollow cathode lamp (Perkin–Elmer, USA) was used as the radiation source of the 324.8 nm copper line. The pyrolysis and atomization temperature employed in the determinations were 900 and 2200 °C, respectively. The t-values and F-values of the statistical tests were used to evaluate the results for the

determination of Cu(II) in coffee samples by CPE-CTS and ET AAS. The robustness of the proposed method was evaluated by examining the data through one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). All results of the statistical analysis were obtained using the GraphPad InStat® software, version 3.05. Fig. 1 shows the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of the (a) chitosan microspheres crosslinked with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and glutaraldehyde (CTS) obtained by spray drying, (b) carbon paste (CP), (c) CP containing crosslinked chitosan microspheres (CP-CTS) and (d) GABA antagonist drugs the proposed chemical structure of chitosan crosslinked with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and glutaraldehyde. As can be seen in the CP-CTS micrograph, the spherical form and regular shape of the CTS microspheres in the modified carbon paste were maintained even after the maceration process during the electrode preparation. This Dichloromethane dehalogenase is attributed to the interaction of the amine groups of the chitosan crosslinked with glutaraldehyde through the Schiff’s base reaction and to the ionic interaction with the 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid, providing a good mechanical stability of microspheres (Guibal, 2004). The electrochemical behaviour of the bare

CPE and CPE-CTS in aqueous solution was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Firstly, the potential was positively swept from −0.2 to +0.1 V, at which point the scan direction was reversed, causing a negative potential sweep back to the initial condition. In Fig. 2a, for comparison, a cyclic voltammogram of the CPE-CTS immersed in the supporting electrolyte without copper ions in solution is shown. As expected, no peak was observed. Fig. 2b shows the cyclic voltammogram obtained with the bare CPE immersed in the supporting electrolyte containing a 5.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 Cu(II) solution after a pre-concentration step at Epc = −0.4 V for tpc = 20 s. In the pre-concentration step, Cu(II) is reduced to Cu0. In the cyclic voltammogram an oxidation peak was present at 0.

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