To date, few cytokines have been described from insects or insect

To date, few cytokines have been described from insects or insect cells. Examples

include a growth-blocking peptide present in hemolymph of larvae of the insect armyworm Pseudaletia separata parasitized by the wasp Apanteles kariyai. The growth-blocking peptide has repressive activity against juvenile hormone esterase [17]. Another growth-blocking peptide (GBP) from Lepidopteran insects regulates larval growth, cell proliferation, and immune cell (plasmatocyte) stimulation [18]. These cytokines belong to what is called the ENF multifunctional peptide family that is characterized by the unique ENF amino acid consensus sequence at their N termini [19]. One of these ENF selleck chemical peptides has been reported to be induced by viral infection in silkworms [20] and another from moth larvae has been reported to stimulate aggregation GDC-0449 mw and directed movement of phagocytic hemocytes [21]. By contrast, the non-ENF cytokine, astakine was actually required for infectivity of white spot syndrome virus in haematopoietic cells of the freshwater

crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus [22]. Another group of insect cytokine-like peptides that have antiviral activity are called alloferons [23]. These peptides are composed of 12-13 amino acids and they can stimulate natural cytotoxicity of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, induce interferon synthesis in mouse and human models, and enhance antiviral and antitumor activity in mice. Although the effect of these substances on this website insect cells has not been reported, it is possible that viprolaxikine may be an alloferon-like substance. If so, it would be the

first alloferon-like substance reported to be produced in an insect cell culture rather than in whole insects. If so, this insect system might constitute a simple model for studying alloferon induction and alloferon control mechanisms in insect cells. Another antiviral protein (AVP) has been described from C6/36 cells persistently infected with Sindbis virus [24]. It was purified to homogeneity and found to be a very hydrophobic peptide of 3200 kDa [25]. When only one clone (U4.4) of naïve C6/36 cells is Cediranib (AZD2171) exposed to AVP for 48 h, the cells not only became refractory to infection by Sindbis virus but also continuously produced AVP and remained refractory to Sindbis virus upon subsequent passage, i.e., they became permanently altered by a single exposure to AVP. AVP had no protective activity against Sinbis virus in BHK-21 mammalian cells [26] and the actual amino acid sequence has not been reported. The requirement for 48 h pre-exposure to obtain protection against Sindbis virus is similar to the requirement of pre-incubation with viprolaxikine for DEN-2 protection in C6/36 cells.

7 and excited with light of the wavelength of 450 nm Fluorescenc

7 and excited with light of the wavelength of 450 nm. Fluorescence emission was detected at 475 – 550 nm. Cultures of the wildtype strains served as negative control. For quantification of the fluorescence the luminescence spectrometer LS 50 B (Perkin Elmer, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA) was used. Construction of D. shibae DFL12T dnr (Dshi_3189) deletion mutants To obtain gene

deletion mutants from D. shibae DFL12T, the well-established suicide vector for Gram-negative bacteria pEX18Ap was PD0332991 chemical structure used [48]. To construct the gene deletion vector pEX18Δdnr::Gmr, the SacI-digested Ω-gentamicin resistance cassette of pPS858 [48] was cloned between two PCR fragments of the dnr gene (Dshi_3189) in the multiple cloning site of pEX18Ap. The two PCR fragments contained DNA homologous to upstream

and downstream regions of the Dshi_3189 gene. A 652-bp fragment containing the upstream promoter region of Dshi_3189 was amplified using primer oPT19 (5′-GGGGTACCAATGCCATGACCT ACTTC-3′), which contains a KpnI restriction site at the 5′ end, and oPT20 (5′-CGAGCTCCGCATGAACGAGTCATCTT-3′), containing a SacI site (both restriction sites underlined). The primers oPT21 (5′-CGAGCTCAGCAGAACCATGCGGAGAT-3′), containing a SacI site, and oPT22 (LDC000067 clinical trial 5′-CCCAAGCTTTCACCAGCGGGCTTTTC-3′), which contains a HindIII site (both restriction sites underlined), amplified 758 bp of the corresponding downstream region of Dshi_3198. The suicide vector https://www.selleckchem.com/products/cbl0137-cbl-0137.html pEX18Δdnr::Gmr was used to replace

the Dshi_3198 gene with the Ω-gentamicin cassette. To confirm homologous recombination PCR analysis was performed. Furthermore, the growth behaviour of the resulting mutants was analysed under anaerobic conditions with nitrate as electron acceptor, as outlined before [57]. Acknowledgements This work was supported by funding from the VW foundation and the Font of the Chemischen Sulfite dehydrogenase Industrie. We thank Dr. Thorsten Brinkhoff for isolation and providing bacterial strains. The work of Andreas Raschka, Sarah Borg and Nadine Nachtigall is also highly acknowledged. References 1. Bruhn JB, Nielsen KF, Hjelm M, Hansen M, Bresciani J, Schulz S, Gram L: Ecology, inhibitory activity, and morphogenesis of a marine antagonistic bacterium belonging to the Roseobacter clade. Appl Environ Microbiol 2005, 71:7263–7270.CrossRefPubMed 2. Wagner-Döbler I, Biebl H: Environmental biology of the marine Roseobacter lineage. Annu Rev Microbiol 2006, 60:225–280.CrossRef 3. Brinkhoff T, Bach G, Heidorn T, Liang L, Schlingloff A, Simon M: Antibiotic production by a Roseobacter clade-affiliated species from the German Wadden Sea and its antagonistic effects on indigenous isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004, 70:2560–2565.CrossRefPubMed 4. Brinkhoff T, Giebel HA, Simon M: Diversity, ecology, and genomics of the Roseobacter clade: a short overview. Arch Microbiol 2008, 189:531–539.CrossRefPubMed 5.

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PubMedCrossRef 34 Nisticò C, Garufi

C, Barni S, Frontini

PubMedCrossRef 34. Nisticò C, Garufi

C, Barni S, Frontini L, Gallà DA, Giannarelli D, Vaccaro A, D’Ottavio AM, Terzoli E: Phase II study of epirubicin and vinorelbine with granulocyte find more colony-stimulating factor: a high-activity, dose-dense weekly regimen for advanced MM-102 breast cancer. Ann Oncol 1999, 10:937–942.PubMedCrossRef 35. van Dalen EC, Michiels EM, Caron HN, Kremer LC: Different anthracycline derivates for reducing cardiotoxicity in cancer patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010, 12:CD005006. 36. Verma S, Dent S, Chow BJ, Rayson D, Safra T: Metastatic breast cancer: the role of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin after conventional anthracyclines. Cancer Treat Rev 2008, 34:391–406.PubMedCrossRef Adavosertib in vivo 37. Chow LW, Yip AY, Lang BH: A phase II trial of vinorelbine and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with pretreated metastatic breast cancer. Am J Clin Oncol 2007, 30:133–138.PubMedCrossRef 38. Ardavanis A, Mavroudis D, Kalbakis K, Malamos N, Syrigos K, Vamvakas L, Kotsakis A, Kentepozidis N, Kouroussis C, Agelaki S, Georgoulias V: Breast Cancer Committee of the Hellenic Oncology Research Group. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with vinorelbine as salvage treatment in pretreated patients with advanced

breast cancer: a multicentre phase II study. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2006, 58:742–748.PubMedCrossRef 39. Mlineritsch B, Schabel-Moser R, Andel J, Fridrik M, Moik M, Mayer P, Russ G, Rass C, Greil R, Arbeitsgemeinschaft medikamentöse Tumortherapie Study Group: Multicenter phase II study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with vinorelbine as first-line treatment in elderly patients with metastatic breast cancer. Onkologie Ribonucleotide reductase 2009, 32:18–24.PubMedCrossRef 40. Addeo R, Faiola V, Guarrasi R, Montella L, Vincenzi B, Capasso E, Cennamo G, Rotundo MS, Tagliaferri P, Caraglia M, Del Prete S: Liposomal pegylated doxorubicin plus

vinorelbine combination as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer in elderly women > or = 65 years of age. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2008, 62:285–292.PubMedCrossRef 41. Morabito A, Piccirillo MC, Monaco K, Pacilio C, Nuzzo F, Chiodini P, Gallo C, de Matteis A, Perrone F, NCI Naples Breast Cancer Group: First-line chemotherapy for HER-2 negative metastatic breast cancer patients who received anthracyclines as adjuvant treatment. Oncologist 2007, 12:1288–1298.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions PV, GC, ML designed the study; FG, DS, GF, PP, CB, EV, AC, LP, AL, LDL collected and assembled the data, DG performed the statistical analysis, PV and LDL wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the USA [1] and its incidence is increasing in many countries, including Italy [2] thus representing a major health problem.

SMA participated in the adipokine analyses and

SMA participated in the adipokine analyses and VX-680 assisted in manuscript preparation. JPW performed the statistical analyses. AAF assisted in analysis and interpretation of data, as well as manuscript preparation. All authors participated in editing and approved the final draft of the manuscript.”
“Background Epidemiologic Flavopiridol cell line studies show that, while moderate activity may enhance immune function above sedentary levels, acute bouts of prolonged high-intensity exercise impair immune function and are a predisposing factor to upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) [1–3]. Many studies have reported that some aspects of immune function, such as lymphocyte proliferation,

or of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations in mucosal surfaces, are temporarily impaired after acute bouts of prolonged, continuous heavy exercise [1, 4–7]. The elite athletes training requires repeated bouts of strenuous exercise in order selleck screening library to compete at the highest levels. Susceptibility to minor infections as a result of intensive endurance training is obviously a concern for athletes, as it is generally recognized that those minor infections result in a drop in exercise performance, interfere with the training program [8], and have been associated with the development of persistent fatigue [9]. Immune impairment has been associated to increased levels of stress hormones during exercise

resulting in the entry into the circulation of less mature leukocytes from the bone marrow [3]. During exercise athletes are exposed to multiple stressors such as physical, psychological and environmental. Exposure to a cold environment affects the immune function, specially the lymphoproliferative responses [10]. Consequently, it has been demonstrated that vigorous exercise in cold temperatures is associated to increased susceptibility to URTI [11, 12] even above what is observed

with physical exercise alone [13]. Nucleotides are low molecular weight intracellular compounds, which play key role in nearly all biochemical processes [14]. As nucleotides can be synthesized endogenously they are not essential nutrients. However, under situations of stress, dietary nucleotides have been reported to have beneficial effects upon the immune oxyclozanide system [14, 15]. Although the molecular mechanisms by which dietary nucleotides modulate the immune system are practically unknown, it has been demonstrated that nucleotides influence lymphocyte maturation, activation and proliferation [16–18]. Likewise, they affect the lymphocyte subset populations [19, 20], macrophage phagocytosis [17], immunoglobulin production [18, 21], and delayed hypersensitivity as well as allograft and tumour responses [15, 17]. Consequently, in several studies nucleotides supplementation has been shown to reverse the immune suppression associated to stress situations [22, 23]. However, data available on endurance exercise trials is scarce.

The improvements in walking speed exceed ≥20 %, which is consider

The improvements in walking speed exceed ≥20 %, which is considered to represent clinically relevant change [42–44]. While the small sample sizes limit the power and generalizability of the analyses, the current study also demonstrated

that, of the MS types, PP and SP made the most gains in ambulation compared with the RR group. This was not unusual given that the PP and SP groups were slow in ambulation to begin with and ambulated shorter distances (more impaired). Similar changes were observed for the more impaired patients (moderate to severe impairment) when compared with mildly impaired patients. Both sets of patients who continued taking the medication and those who discontinued after a minimum of 4 weeks use were able AG-881 in vitro to maintain their improved walking speed and endurance at 12-month follow-up. This improvement in ambulatory ability translated into improved motor function. The change in TFIM score was 18 points. A TFIM change of ~20 points is considered a minimally

clinically LY333531 chemical structure significant change [45]. This implied that patients who were now able to ambulate more were now more able to self-care and thus less dependent on their caregivers. The present study also revealed QNZ concentration a negative correlation between walking speed and endurance on initial evaluation and 12-month follow-up, with slower walking patients also ambulating shorter distances. However, this association was statistically significant at 12-month follow-up only. This finding suggests that the results of the two ambulation tests are better aligned at the follow-up assessment. Eight patients (40 %) discontinued dalfampridine use after 4 weeks. Three patients did so volitionally due to perceived lack of benefit, while in five patients this was due to adverse effects which included insomnia in two patients, and weakness, dizziness, and headache in one patient each. The limitations of this study include (i) the small sample size; (ii) the sample comprised of veterans who were all White men; (iii) it was a single institution study;

and (iv) retrospective analysis with missing data may bias the findings of this study. However, the strength 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase of this study lies in the longitudinal follow-up for 12 months with 100 % adherence to intake in 60 % (12/20) of the patient population studied. 5 Conclusion Ambulation is crucial for patients with MS. This study provides evidence that treatment with dalfampridine in veterans with MS with ambulatory dysfunction produces clinically meaningful improvement in walking speed and endurance in the absence of meaningful change in muscle tone. This improvement in ambulation was associated with improved motor functioning. Author contributions Study concept and design was undertaken by Meheroz H. Rabadi; acquisition of data was carried out by Kimberly Kreymborg and Meheroz H. Rabadi; analysis and interpretation of data was conducted by Meheroz H. Rabadi and Andrea S.

Two different variants of the regeneration part of the RuMP pathw

Two different variants of the regeneration part of the RuMP pathway are known, the TA (transaldolase) variant and the SBPase (sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphatase) variant. Based on its genome sequence, B. methanolicus possesses the whole genetic equipment for both variants of the RuMP pathway [20–22]. In the TA variant, S7-P is directly generated from F6-P and E4-P by a TA activity, while the SBPase variant requires the activity of a sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate aldolase (SBA) to generate sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate (SBP) and an SBPase activity for the further conversion of SBP to S7-P. We recently demonstrated, that both FBAs from B. methanolicus are promiscuous enzymes

also active as SBA, while only the plasmid encoded GlpXP was active as FBPase and see more SBPase, which indicates that the SBPase variant of the RuMP pathway might operate in this organism [28]. Three enzymes, transketolase (TKT), ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) and ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase (RPE), are shared in both variants. In the RuMP pathway, the predicted function of the TKT(s) is identical to the PPP and Calvin cycle. Figure 1 Proposed map of the biochemical reactions of the methanol oxidation and assimilation buy PS-341 pathways in B. methanolicus including the TA (dashed arrows) and the SBPase (solid arrows) variants

KU-60019 concentration of the RuMP pathway. Enzymes: MDH, methanol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.244); HPS, 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (EC 4.1.2.43); PHI, 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (EC 5.3.1.27); PFK, 6-phosphofructokinase, (EC Aldol condensation 2.7.1.11); FBA, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.13); TKT, transketolase (EC 2.2.1.1); GlpX, fructose-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1); TA, transaldolase (EC

2.2.1.2); RPE, ribulose- phosphate 3-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.1); RPI, ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.6); Metabolites: H6-P, 3-hexulose 6-phosphate; F6-P, fructose-6-phosphate; FBP, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate; GAP, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate; DHAP, dihydroxyacetone phosphate; E4-P, erythrose 4-phosphate; SBP, sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate; S7-P, sedoheptulose-7-phosphate; Ri5-P, ribose 5-phosphate; X5P, xylulose 5-phosphate; Ru5P, ribulose 5-phosphate; The reactions are described in detail in the text. Adapted from [28]. It has been shown that the natural plasmid pBM19 carries the key mdh gene and five genes with deduced roles in the RuMP pathway (glpX, fba, tkt, pfk, rpe). The absence of pBM19 results in the loss of the ability to grow on methanol and caused higher methanol tolerance and reduced formaldehyde tolerance levels in B. methanolicus cells [20]. Transcription levels of mdh and the five plasmid encoded RuMP pathway genes, as well as the chromosomal genes hps and phi, were increased during growth with methanol suggesting their importance for methylotrophy [21, 22]. Notably, 15 fold higher mRNA tkt P levels were found in methanol- as compared to mannitol-grown cells [21, 22].

Comparing the PFGE

Comparing the PFGE results using the criteria by GDC-973 Tenover et al. and when a similarity cut-off of 80% was applied, most NT SmaI -MRSA isolates should be classified as one PFGE cluster [31, 32]. However, the Cfr9I PFGE is still better in https://www.selleckchem.com/products/YM155.html discriminating possible differences between NT SmaI -MRSA isolates. No geographical relation

could be found in either spa-type. However, most NT SmaI -MRSA isolates are found in areas with the highest pig density. This could be explained by the frequent movement of pigs between farms in the Netherlands. This facilitates the dissemination of ST398 MRSA on a national scale. A similar situation took place during the foot- and -mouth epidemic in England of 2001 [33]. To provide additional resolution on the molecular evolution and dissemination of MRSA lineages, several typing techniques such as PFGE, SCCmec- and spa-typing have been developed. Since PFGE with SmaI does not digest the DNA of ST398 isolates, spa-typing has been the method of choice for characterizing NT SmaI -MRSA isolates. However, given the low diversity in spa-types it is hard to ascertain health care-associated transmission if two or more different spa-types are present in the same institution. Fanoy et al. described an outbreak in a residential care facility where two spa-types (t2383 and t011) were prevalent [18]. After re-examination

of the same isolates the PFGE profiles using Cfr9I were indistinguishable, indicating isogenicity. Moreover, the discriminatory ability of spa-typing of NT SmaI -MRSA is Ilomastat compromised by the fact that

more than 80% of the NT SmaI -MRSA in the Netherlands belong either to spa-type t011 or t108 [23]. With the modified Cfr9I PFGE a better tool for epidemiological investigation has become available. The results obtained Tolmetin by Cfr9I PFGE of isolates from veterinarians and their close family members showed possible transmission of ST398. Five out of eight pairs had identical profiles. The family members had themselves no contact with animals and were presumably infected by the occupationally exposed veterinarian. Two pairs of PFGE patterns among family members were not identical. Their isolates also had different spa-types. Family members may have been colonized by one MRSA through the veterinarian and subsequently the veterinarian may have been re-colonized by another MRSA after occupational exposure. One pair differed only in a single PFGE band probably as a consequence of micro-evolution. A study on nine different farms revealed that the PFGE patterns of isolates from seven farms were related, but PFGE patterns varied within and between the farms. For example, farm 7, yielded only 2 very closely related PFGE patterns (D14, D21; similarity 95%), while other farms, like farm 8, showed 5 different PFGE patterns (B1, D1, D3, D4 and K) and had a similarity of only 66%. Different batches of animals entering the farm, carrying different NT SmaI -MRSA, could have caused variation within farms.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002,99(16):10282–10286 PubMedCrossRef 10

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002,99(16):10282–10286.PubMedCrossRef 10. Igarashi P, Somlo S: Genetics and pathogenesis of polycystic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002,13(9):2384–98.PubMedCrossRef 11. Delaney V, Mullaney ARN-509 in vitro J, Bourke E: Juvenile nephronophthisis, congenital hepatic fibrosis and retinal hypoplasia in twins. Q J Med 1978,47(187):281–90.PubMed 12. Otto EA, Schermer B, Obara T, O’Toole JF, Hiller KS, Mueller AM, Ruf RG, Hoefele J, Beekmann F, Landau D, Foreman JW, Goodship JA, Strachan T, Kispert A, Wolf MT, Gagnadoux MF, Nivet H, Antignac C, Walz G, Drummond

IA, Benzing T, Hildebrandt F: Mutations in INVS encoding inversin cause nephronophthisis type 2, linking renal cystic disease to

the function of primary cilia and left-right axis determination. Nat Genet 2003,34(4):413–420.PubMedCrossRef 13. Antonacci N, Casadei R, Ricci C, Pezzilli R, Calculli L, Santini D, Alagna V, Minni F: Sclerosing cholangitis, autoimmune chronic Foretinib chemical structure pancreatitis, and situs viscerum inversus totalis. Pancreas 2009,38(3):345–346.PubMedCrossRef 14. Quintini C, Buniva P, Farinetti A, Monni S, Tazzioli G, Saviano L, Campana S, Malagnino F, selleck Saviano M: [Adenocarcinoma of pancreas with situs viscerum inversus totalis]. Minerva Chir 2003,58(2):243–246.PubMed Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions HMS carried out endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and participated in coordination and drafted the manuscript. KÖ carried out the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP), TÇ conceived of the case report, and participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. AŞ helped collecting the data of the patient. EŞ conceived of the case report, and participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. RK and AN followed the patients after externalization to date. EZ assessed the pathological materials of the patient. All authors read and approved the final

manuscript.”
“Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major worldwide second causative pathogen of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma [1]. Egypt has the highest prevalence of HCV infection in the world where 15% of the total population are infected [2–4]. Although the exact mechanisms of HCV pathogenesis, such as viral persistence, hepatocytes injury, and hepatocarcinogenesis are not fully understood, yet an accumulating body of evidence suggests that apoptosis of hepatocytes is significantly involved in the pathogenesis [5, 6]. Apoptosis plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis through removal of aged cells, damaged cells, and overgrowing new cells [7].

For example, in boys and girls combined, in our most completely a

For example, in boys and girls combined, in our most completely adjusted model, a doubling TPX-0005 concentration in 25(OH)D2 was associated with a 0.05SD decrease in BMDC.

Whereas 25(OH)D2 was unrelated to Tideglusib order periosteal circumference in minimally adjusted analyses, there was a weak positive association in more fully adjusted models, to a similar degree, in boys and girls. In minimally adjusted analyses, 25(OH)D2 was inversely related to cortical bone area, BMCC, endosteal adjusted for periosteal circumference and cortical thickness in females, but this was not seen after more complete adjustment. Table 3 Associations between plasma concentration of 25(OH)D2 and pQCT parametres     Vitamin 25(OH)D2 Minimally adjusted, N = 3,579 Selleckchem Oligomycin A (males=1,709) Anthropometry-adjusted, N = 3,579 (males=1,709) Anthropometry-, SES- and PA-adjusted, N = 2,247 (males=1,203) Beta 95% CI P value (sex) Beta 95% CI P value (sex) Beta 95% CI P value (sex) Cortical bone mineral density Male −0.055 (−0.099, -0.010) 0.74 −0.048 (−0.091, -0.005) 0.89 −0.049 (−0.101, 0.004) 0.98 Female −0.048 (−0.082, -0.014) −0.046 (−0.078, -0.014) −0.048 (−0.089, -0.008) ALL −0.051 (−0.084, -0.017) −0.047 (−0.079, -0.015) −0.048 (−0.087, -0.011) Cortical bone area Male −0.006 (−0.055, 0.043) 0.04 0.013 (−0.021, 0.047) 0.32 0.006 (−0.038, 0.049) 0.90 Female −0.054 (−0.095, -0.013) −0.003 (−0.030, of 0.025) 0.003 (−0.033, 0.039) ALL −0.033 (−0.071, 0.006) 0.004 (−0.022, 0.031) 0.004 (−0.029, 0.037) Cortical bone mineral content

Male −0.021 (−0.074, 0.031) 0.05 0.000 (−0.035, 0.036) 0.37 −0.007 (−0.053, 0.039) 0.93 Female −0.069 (−0.113, -0.026) −0.015 (−0.044, 0.015) −0.009 (−0.047, 0.028) ALL −0.048 (−0.089, -0.007) −0.008 (−0.036, 0.020) −0.008 (−0.044, 0.027) Periosteal circumference Male 0.018 (−0.026, 0.062) 0.08 0.035 (0.002, 0.067) 0.82 0.037 (−0.007, 0.080) 0.86 Female −0.021 (−0.061, 0.021) 0.031 (0.000, 0.063) 0.041 (0.003, 0.079) ALL −0.004 (−0.040, 0.032) 0.033 (0.005, 0.060) 0.039 (0.006, 0.075) Endosteal adjusted for periosteal circumference Male 0.026 (−0.012, 0.063) 0.14 0.01 (−0.024, 0.044) 0.22 0.017 (−0.025, 0.058) 0.71 Female 0.052 (0.021, 0.082) 0.029 (0.001, 0.057) 0.024 (−0.009, 0.059) ALL 0.040 (0.011, 0.069) 0.021 (−0.007, 0.047) 0.021 (−0.010, 0.053) Cortical thickness Male −0.031 (−0.085, 0.025) 0.07 −0.018 (−0.065, 0.030) 0.24 −0.029 (−0.088, 0.029) 0.73 Female −0.078 (−0.123, -0.033) −0.044 (−0.082, -0.006) −0.039 (−0.089, 0.