The cytotoxic

effect of 20(S)-Rg3 in MCF-7 cells unexpect

The cytotoxic

effect of 20(S)-Rg3 in MCF-7 cells unexpectedly showed no significant difference. These results were consistent when Rg3 was treated in MDA-MB-453 cells (Figs. 4A, 4B). The results from flow cytometric analysis [i.e., fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)] indicated that Rg5 significantly induced cell cycle arrest (Figs. 5A, 5B). This was further confirmed by the cell cycle assay with the data representing suppressed cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells after Rg5 treatment. Rg5 increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and decreased the number of cells in the S phase. Based on these results, Rg5 may induce cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Protein expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E2 and CDK4 was decreased, whereas the expression of p15INK4B, PFI-2 research buy p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 was increased (Figs. 6A, 6B). As Fig. 7A shows, treatment with GW-572016 purchase Rg5 induced caspase-8 and caspase-9, caspase-7, caspase-6. The full-length Bid consequently disappeared in a dose-dependent manner. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase

(PARP) cleavage was detected in Rg5-treated MCF-7 cells, which indicated that Rg5 reduced cell viability by inducing apoptosis. Promotion of mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway by Rg5 was evidenced by Bax/Bcl-2 dysregulation, activation of caspase-9, and release of cytochrome C (Fig. 7A). Apoptosis was evaluated by annexin V/FITC/PI dual staining. After 48 h, Rg5 significantly increased apoptosis at 25μM and 50μM and reduced apoptotic cells at 100μM, whereas necrotic cells were increased (Fig. 7B). The increased expression

of DR4 and DR5 on the cell surface was obvious when cells were treated at the 100μM concentration of Rg5 (Fig. 8A). Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is necessary for apoptosis induced by exposure to ultraviolet radiation, cytokines, chemotherapy, ceramide, and serum deprivation [24]. When SPTLC1 cells were treated with Rg5 (50μM and 100μM), p38 MAPKs were activated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (data not shown) (Fig. 8C). Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptotic proteins, is highly expressed in most types of cancer and is a regulator of mitosis; survivin-targeting cancer treatment is validated with great efficacy and no serious toxicity [25]. The expression of survivin was suppressed at high concentrations of Rg5 (Fig. 8D). Apoptotic cells were visualized with DAPI as fluorescent probes. When cells were incubated for 48 h with Rg5 at indicated concentrations (i.e., 0μM, 50μM, and 100μM), the cells displayed the typical apoptosis morphology such as fragmented and condensed nuclei with cellular shrinkage (Fig. 9B). Cells treated with Rg5 at the 100μM concentration showed a necrosis-like morphology (Fig. 9C). Red ginseng is fresh ginseng that is dry-steamed once using water vapor. Black ginseng refers to ginseng that is steamed nine times. Fine Black ginseng refers to the fine roots (i.e., hairy roots) of BG steamed nine times. As Fig.

As is detailed in the

As is detailed in the CDK and cancer PCA bi-plot (Fig. 1) the apple juice extracted

from Golden Delicious exhibited a similar flavour profile to that of Granny Smith with high concentrations of volatile compounds related with green-grassy notes (trans-2-hexenal and 1-hexanal and cis-3-hexenol) and low concentrations of acetates. The latter has been also confirmed by Ting et al. (2012) who reported lower concentrations of acetates in the headspace of fresh cut Golden Delicious samples compared to other apple cultivars i.e. Red Delicious, Jonagold or Fuji. Moreover, the aldehyde to alcohol ratio is indicative of ripeness, as aldehydes can be metabolised to alcohols and subsequently esterified with the present carboxylic acids (Defilippi, Dandekar, & Kader, 2005). Based on GC–MS data, the aldehydes and their corresponding

alcohols ratios were higher for Golden Delicious and Granny Smith juices implying a lower level of ripeness for the specific fruit samples. Pink Lady and Braeburn were characterised as having moderate concentrations of most of the identified flavour compounds, apart from a marked elevation in concentration for trans-2-hexenal in Braeburn. Jazz had the greatest fruity-ethereal-flowery flavour type compounds as indicated by the higher concentration of acetates (2-methylpropyl, butyl, 2-methylbutyl, and hexyl acetates) and the low green-grassy odour related compounds (cis-3-hexen-1-ol and trans-2-hexanal). Regardless the cultivar type, acetates Fulvestrant and more specifically butyl and hexyl acetate were

the dominant esters in the headspace of the apple juices, this has previously been reported in other studies (Aprea et al., 2012, Kato et al., 2003, Komthong et al., 2007 and Ting et al., 2012). 1-Butanol was the most abundant alcohol in the headspace of the juices followed by 1-hexanol. In contrast to esters and aldehydes, alcohols are generally characterised as having higher odour threshold and thus they are considered as secondary contributors to apple flavour perception (Echeverrı́a, Graell, López, & Lara, 2004). It is also interesting that 1-butanol was highly correlated (according to Pearson’s test) with butyl acetate (r = 0.926, p < 0.001), hexyl acetate (r = 0.898, p < 0.001), trans-2-hexenal (r = −0.777, p < 0.001) and hexanal (r = −0.748, p < 0.01) and it could be surmised that these compounds are generated by a similar metabolic pathway during apple ripening. Finally, it should be noted that in the present work the major sesquiterpene found in the headspace of apples e.g. alpha-farnesene was not detected. This could be attributed either to the adopted protocol for the identification and quantification of the volatiles by GC or to the post juice extraction treatments e.g. enzymatic clarification and pectinase inactivation by heating.

0 mL of each coffee sample was transferred independently to the c

0 mL of each coffee sample was transferred independently to the cell containing 10 mL of acetate buffer solution (0.1 mol L−1, pH 6.0) and successive additions of Cu(II) standard solution were performed. After each addition, square wave voltammograms were recorded, also in triplicate, using the optimised experimental conditions. The electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) measurements for the validation of the present procedure were carried

out with a Perkin–Elmer AAnalyst 100 atomic Olaparib clinical trial absorption spectrometer (Norwalk, CT, USA) interfaced with a PC. Unspecific light absorption was corrected by continuum light source (deuterium lamp) background correction. A hollow cathode lamp (Perkin–Elmer, USA) was used as the radiation source of the 324.8 nm copper line. The pyrolysis and atomization temperature employed in the determinations were 900 and 2200 °C, respectively. The t-values and F-values of the statistical tests were used to evaluate the results for the

determination of Cu(II) in coffee samples by CPE-CTS and ET AAS. The robustness of the proposed method was evaluated by examining the data through one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). All results of the statistical analysis were obtained using the GraphPad InStat® software, version 3.05. Fig. 1 shows the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of the (a) chitosan microspheres crosslinked with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and glutaraldehyde (CTS) obtained by spray drying, (b) carbon paste (CP), (c) CP containing crosslinked chitosan microspheres (CP-CTS) and (d) GABA antagonist drugs the proposed chemical structure of chitosan crosslinked with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and glutaraldehyde. As can be seen in the CP-CTS micrograph, the spherical form and regular shape of the CTS microspheres in the modified carbon paste were maintained even after the maceration process during the electrode preparation. This Dichloromethane dehalogenase is attributed to the interaction of the amine groups of the chitosan crosslinked with glutaraldehyde through the Schiff’s base reaction and to the ionic interaction with the 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid, providing a good mechanical stability of microspheres (Guibal, 2004). The electrochemical behaviour of the bare

CPE and CPE-CTS in aqueous solution was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Firstly, the potential was positively swept from −0.2 to +0.1 V, at which point the scan direction was reversed, causing a negative potential sweep back to the initial condition. In Fig. 2a, for comparison, a cyclic voltammogram of the CPE-CTS immersed in the supporting electrolyte without copper ions in solution is shown. As expected, no peak was observed. Fig. 2b shows the cyclic voltammogram obtained with the bare CPE immersed in the supporting electrolyte containing a 5.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 Cu(II) solution after a pre-concentration step at Epc = −0.4 V for tpc = 20 s. In the pre-concentration step, Cu(II) is reduced to Cu0. In the cyclic voltammogram an oxidation peak was present at 0.

It also emphasized that release results first in occupational (or

It also emphasized that release results first in occupational (or consumer) exposure selleck compound and then also in environmental exposure. The highest likelihood for release of ENM is during the synthesis and handling of ENM, particularly during the handling of powders prior to the fabrication of the composite (Tsai et al., 2009 and Yeganeh et al., 2008). In fabrication activities, post-material generation, or master batch formation, release might occur when creating applications from the composite product. For a polymer composite, mechanical processes such as drilling, cutting and sanding could generate the release of nanomaterials.

Thermal and high-energy processes, that, for example, might be used to shape a composite, could destabilize the composite resulting in a release of nanomaterials. If the composite material is flexible, for example a fabric, all of the above activities and additional ones, including rolling, folding or other handling might release nanomaterials. In summary, at the fabrication phase a release of nanomaterial is possible if there are steps in which the polymer structure is modified. Kuhlbusch et al. (2011) summarized and reviewed all publications

which include investigations of ENM release at workplace or simulated scenarios for use and end of life up to the year 2011 and gave a good overview of possible release scenarios, not only for polymer compounds. During the use phases, RO4929097 research buy both environmental sources of stress and human activities that stress the composite may result in releases. The media in which

the composite is used affect the environmental factors: weathering is affected by moisture, salinity, pressure, temperature and light radiation (especially UV), and will vary in marine or fresh water, or with altitude and biogeochemical conditions of exposure. Specific applications — represented by a limited number of standardized processes, are useful to limit the number for of possible release scenarios. Human activities at the use phase include mechanical, thermal and biochemical interactions, but conditions may differ in the environment. For example, CNT/polymer composite building materials will normally be subjected to weathering stress, and less to mechanical stress. On the other hand, a CNT/polymer composite used in a laptop computer housing will mainly be subject to mechanical stress (e.g. by scratching or cracking). Generally speaking, the likelihood that only the nanostructured material is released is small, because of the high-energy input needed. Most likely, lumps of composite material containing CNTs or nanostructured material or vaporized nanostructured materials will be released. Post-use releases could result from waste treatment — landfilling, recycling or incineration. Otherwise, they are more likely to occur from environmental rather than human impacts such as weathering effects after waste treatment.

Kohda and Tanaka [44] reported crude preparations of several glyc

Kohda and Tanaka [44] reported crude preparations of several glycoside hydrolases for the hydrolysis of ginseng ginsenosides; cellulase and amylase exhibited very low hydrolytic activities, whereas pectinase, naringinase, and hesperidinase had much higher activities for hydrolyzing ginsenosides. A permeability study of Rapidase-treated red ginseng extract in

rat skin was conducted by using Franz diffusion cells. The polyphenol contents of the samples transported through the rat skin was significantly increased over time (Fig. 5). The Duvelisib clinical trial skin permeability of the red ginseng extract treated with Rapidase was higher than that of the control. In particular, after 4 h, the skin permeability of the red ginseng extract treated with Rapidase showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) compared with that of the control. Although total polyphenol contents are similar in the presence or absence of Rapidase treatment, Rapidase treatment showed a significant improvement of skin permeability. This result suggests that Rapidase can also act on polyphenol glycosides to produce aglycone

forms of polyphenols. Recently, the study to maximize the bioactivity of plant extracts via the enzyme reaction has been performed in the cosmetic industry using natural compounds [45]. The bioactive ingredients of plants mostly include mixtures of compounds that are present in the form of aglycones and hydrophilic glycosides. However, Volasertib mouse glycosides have some difficulties in their application for skin cosmetics attributable to their low skin permeability. By contrast, aglycone, a hydrophobic polyphenol, can permeate human skin [46]. Wiechers [47] reported that low molecular weight contributes to easier skin penetration; there is a size limitation for chemical compounds and drugs to be absorbed across the human skin barrier. Therefore, Bos and Meinardi [48] reported that certain skin penetration enhancers have low molecular weight. Thus, the hydrolysis of glycoside ingredients into their aglycone

forms has attracted attention as an effective means of enhancing the 5-Fluoracil research buy permeability and, consequently, bioactivity of extracts [45]. Most commercial ginseng products are produced from chemical processes such as solvent extractions and chromatographic purifications. These processes are complicated, costly, and are usually associated with low yields of active compounds such as ginsenosides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Enzymatic extraction was found to be an easy and rapid method for the separation and concentration of bioactive compounds. Therefore, Rapidase will be a major enzyme to enhance bioactive compounds in the development of health-oriented ginseng products via enzymatic processes.

In most cases of NTFP extraction, the importance

of facto

In most cases of NTFP extraction, the importance

of factors such as the breeding system and the effective population size of the plant involved – in supporting regeneration, the persistence of stands and the sustainability of harvesting – has not been considered (Ticktin, 2004). When some thought has been given to these issues (e.g., Alexiades and Shanley, 2005), the quoted effects of harvesting on genetic structure and the associated impacts on production and persistence are generally suppositions only, with no direct confirmatory measurements. One opportunity for MI-773 in vivo understanding genetic-related impacts on NTFPs may come from building on the growing literature of the effects of logging on timber trees, although different harvesting methods, products, rates of growth and reproductive biologies mean that the ability to make generalisations is limited (see below). A number of timber species have been hypothesised to undergo dysgenic selection based on only inferior individuals not being logged, which thereby contribute disproportionately to the seed crop for the establishment of subsequent generations (Pennington et al., 1981). Reductions in genetic diversity,

and changes in timber tree stand structure and density that change mating patterns, can lead to inbreeding depression (Lowe et al., 2005). Actual data Z-VAD-FMK concentration on how changes in the genetic structure of logged tree populations influence production volumes, timber quality and economic value, however, are very limited, and the importance of dysgenic selection is itself disputed (Cornelius et al., 2005). Most studies of logging impacts on the genetic structure of timber trees have involved phenotypically-neutral tuclazepam molecular markers to measure diversity rather than measurements of growth, seed viability, etc. (Wickneswari et al., 2014, this special issue). Such research has revealed varying effects of logging on genetic structure, with diversity significantly reduced in some cases (e.g., André et al., 2008 and Carneiro et al., 2011)

but not in others (e.g., Cloutier et al., 2007 and Fageria and Rajora, 2013). It appears that more important than losses in genetic diversity per se are changes in gene flow and breeding behaviour ( Lowe et al., 2005). Jennings et al. (2001) suggested that logging impacts on timber trees will be limited because individuals generally set seed before they are cut and many juveniles that eventually take the place of adults are not removed during logging. NTFPs that are harvested by tree cutting at maturity could be subject to similar limited effects, while the impacts of destructive harvesting before maturity will likely be greater because fewer individuals then seed and a larger cohort can be exploited. When the NTFP is the seed or the fruit, the effects of intensive harvesting on genetic structure may be high, especially if the seed/fruit are harvested by tree felling (Vásquez and Gentry, 1989).

The extraction of DNA on the system used guanidinium thiocyanate

The extraction of DNA on the system used guanidinium thiocyanate (Teknova, Hollister, CA) chemical lysis and solid phase DNA separation and purification with paramagnetic beads (Micromod GmbH, Germany) [19]. Two DNA extraction parameters were evaluated to verify the optimized performance of extraction. Boundary studies on two instruments were performed around the standard set of conditions for concentration of paramagnetic beads in 500 μL of lysis buffer and the incubation time for DNA binding to the beads. Bead concentrations tested were: 0.5×, 1×, 1.5×, and 2× and bead incubation times were: 1.5 min, 3 min and 6 min. The standard conditions are

indicated in bold. Six swabs of 1000 M with 100,000 cell load were used for each condition tested. The robustness of the extraction method to remove PCR inhibitors was challenged using model systems find protocol to simulate what may be encountered from buccal swab collection. Three models of PCR inhibition—coffee, tobacco, and hematin—were used, and dilutions of each inhibitor were added to 1000 M control swabs containing 25,000 or 100,000 cells. Three replicates for each cell load and inhibitor dilution were performed. The inhibitors were prepared as follows: (1) Brewed black coffee was purchased from Starbucks® and 2 μL, 10 μL, 50 μL, and 100 μL aliquots were pipetted directly onto 1000 M swabs; (2) 2.5 g of Grizzly long cut chewing tobacco (American Snuff Company) was mixed with

25 mL of water, ground in a pestle and mortar, and soaked over the course of a four-hour period. The tobacco slurry was

stored overnight at room temperature and the next morning 2 μL, 10 μL, 50 μL, and 100 μL aliquots of the supernatant were pipetted onto 1000 M control swabs; (3) hematin stock solution of 2 mM was made by dissolving hematin (Sigma–Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) in 0.1 N NaOH and then diluted in sterile water to desired concentrations. oxyclozanide 20 μL of each dilution (0.3 mM, 0.6 mM, 1.0 mM, and 2.0 mM) were pipetted onto 1000 M control swabs. The experiments with swabs were performed using three instruments. A mock hematin inhibition study was also performed using the traditional bench methods (e.g. 9700 and 3130xL). PCR reactions were prepared in duplicate with 2 ng of control DNA 007 containing hematin concentrations of: 0 mM, 0.25 mM, 0.3 mM, 0.35 mM, 0.4 mM, 0.45 mM, 0.5 mM and 1 mM and amplified for 28 cycles. The PCR products were separated and analyzed as previously described. The robustness of the GlobalFiler Express assay was tested with an EDTA inhibition study. 0.5 M EDTA (Ambion, TX) was diluted in sterile water and then added directly into the STR reaction vial to final concentrations of 0.1 mM, 0.25 mM, 0.5 mM, 1.0 mM and 1.5 mM. 1000 M control swabs with 25,000 or 100,000 cells were used to test the effect of EDTA addition on generation of a DNA profile. Three replicates for each cell load and inhibitor concentration were performed.

5) Data confirm that infection significantly affected weight com

5). Data confirm that infection significantly affected weight compared with non-infected animals throughout the 8 day

period (p < 0.05). The data also show a single treatment of infected ferrets with 244 DI virus resulted in a greater overall weight gain that was seen with the infected control animals (p < 0.05). This indicates that while the treated animals experienced a transient weight loss on day 3 ( Fig. NLG919 in vivo 1a), this was less than was seen with the infected control group, and that treated animals subsequently gained weight at a greater rate than did the control infected animals. In contrast the repeated measures ANOVA showed that while multiple (10) treatments with oseltamivir resulted in a reduced weight loss when compared with the infected control group ( Fig 1a), this was not significant at the 5% level. ZD1839 concentration The repeated measures ANOVA identified day 3 post-infection as the time at which the greatest difference between

either of the two treatments and the control infected group occurred, with DI virus providing the more effective amelioration of weight loss. Separate analysis of data using a one tailed unpaired t test was in agreement with the repeated measures ANOVA. The t-test showed that a single treatment with 244 DI virus at 2 h prior to infection significantly protected ferrets from A/Cal-associated weight loss on days 3 and 4 ( Fig. 1b). By t-test oseltamivir, given at 2 h prior to infection and overall twice daily for 5 days, did not significantly reduce weight loss compared to the untreated infected group on days 3 and 4 ( Fig. 1b). Fig. Racecadotril 2a shows the mean daily temperatures for the groups of ferrets following infection. Control A/Cal-infected ferrets developed a pronounced fever spike at 3 days after infection (circled). Fever was reduced by both 244 DI virus and oseltamivir treatments. Though the reduction in temperature on day 3 post infection with either treatment was clearly evident, neither was statistically significant at the 95% level (p = 0.09 and p = 0.07 for treatment with 244 DI virus or oseltamivir treatment, respectively). This was due to one ferret in the control A/Cal-infected group that recorded

a non-elevated temperature, as omission of this data point gave p values of 0.02 and 0.04 for treatment with 244 DI virus or oseltamivir, respectively ( Fig. 2b). There was no statistical difference in the day 3 temperatures in infected ferrets treated with 244 DI virus or oseltamivir (p = 0.32). Ferrets were monitored for sneezing and nasal discharge, both typical respiratory signs of influenza. Analysis of data collected twice daily (morning and afternoon) over the 14-day duration of the study showed that treatment with 244 DI virus significantly (p = 0.009) reduced the score compared with the infected A/Cal control group by 1.7-fold ( Fig. 3). Oseltamivir treatment gave no significant reduction in respiratory disease ( Fig. 3).

Management of the UMRS began with large woody debris removal,

Management of the UMRS began with large woody debris removal, Crizotinib clinical trial timber cutting along the banks, and leveeing of towns along the river. Between 1878 and 1907, a 1.37 m deep navigation channel was created and maintained

by installing river training features, including wing dikes, closing dikes, and rock revetments (O’Brien et al., 1992). In 1907, Congress authorized a 1.83 m navigation channel, so more river training features were installed and dredging was initiated. In the 1930s, a 2.74 m navigation channel was achieved by installing a system of 29 locks and dams, stretching from Minneapolis, Minnesota to Granite City, Illinois. This created a succession of large pool environments, with short reaches of freely flowing sections of river just below the locks and dams, greatly altering the hydrology and ecology of the region (Pinter et al., 2010 and Alexander et al., 2012). Lock and Dam 6 was completed in June 1936 at River Mile 714.1 at Trempealeau, Wisconsin to provide a lift of 2.0 m for navigation. The Lock and Dam consists of a 33-m wide concrete lock structure, a 272-m wide concrete dam with five roller gates and ten Tainter gates, a 305-m wide concrete overflow spillway, and a 792-m wide earth embankment.

Lock and Dam 5a delineates the upper extent of Pool 6 ( Wing dikes, closing dikes, and levees are found throughout the pool and levees and dikes along sections of the river have disconnected the main channel from large parts of its floodplain (Fig. 1). A levee surrounds Winona for 23.3 km and an elevated railroad dike relocated and constricted the mouth of the Trempealeau River, disconnecting the majority of the floodplains and deltaic backwaters to the north of Pool 6 (Fremling et al., 1973). Despite the history of river

engineering, Pool 6 has continued to be largely island braided, with a mosaic of vegetated islands, sand bars, secondary channels, isolated and continuous backwaters, and wetlands (Collins and Knox, 2003). No island restoration has been undertaken in Pool 6, though a controlled 0.3 Galeterone drawdown occurred in 2010 temporarily exposed 0.54 km2 of sediment ( Seasonal hydrology is dominated by early spring floods resulting from snow melt and spring rains (Fig. 2A). The lowest flows occur during winter months. Since 1936, pool levels have been managed by the USACE (Fig. 2B). During high flows, gates on the concrete dam are opened to facilitate increased discharge, allowing the river to run “naturally. Land area changes and sedimentation rates were quantified for the period from 1895 to 2010, using a nested study design (Table 1).

In their view, however, these impacts are seen as much different

In their view, however, these impacts are seen as much different in scale than those that come later: Preindustrial societies could and did modify coastal and terrestrial ecosystems but they did not have the numbers, social and economic organisation, or technologies needed to equal or dominate the great forces of Nature in magnitude or rate. ABT-263 mouse Their impacts remained largely local and transitory, well within

the bounds of the natural variability of the environment (Steffen et al., 2007:615; also see Steffen et al., 2011:846–847). Here, we review archeological and paleoecological evidence for rapid and widespread faunal extinctions after the initial colonization of continental and island landscapes. While the timing and precise mechanisms of extinction (e.g., coincident climate change, overharvesting, invasive species, habitat disruption, GSK 3 inhibitor disease, or extraterrestrial impact) still are debated (Haynes, 2009), the global pattern of first human arrival followed by biotic extinctions, that accelerate through time, places humans as a contributing agent to extinction for at least 50,000 years. From the late Pleistocene to the Holocene, moreover, we argue that human contributions to such extinctions and ecological change have continued to accelerate. More than

simply the naming of geologic epochs, defining the level of human involvement in ancient extinctions may have widespread ethical implications for the present and future of conservation biology and restoration ecology (Donlan et al., 2005 and Wolverton, 2010). A growing number of scientists and resource managers accept the premise that humans caused or significantly contributed to late Quaternary extinctions and, we have the moral imperative to restore and rebalance these ecosystems by introducing species closely related to those that became extinct. also Experiments are already underway in “Pleistocene

parks” in New Zealand, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, Latvia, and the Russian Far East (Marris, 2009), and scientists are debating the merits of rewilding North America with Old World analog species (Caro, 2007, Oliveira-Santos and Fernandez, 2010 and Rubenstein et al., 2006). One enduring debate in archeology revolves around the role of anatomically modern humans (AMH, a.k.a. Homo sapiens) in the extinction of large continental, terrestrial mammals (megafauna). As AMH populations spread from their evolutionary homeland in Africa between about 70,000 and 50,000 years ago ( Klein, 2008), worldwide megafauna began a catastrophic decline, with about 90 of 150 genera ( Koch and Barnosky, 2006:216) going extinct by 10,000 cal BP (calendar years before present). A variety of scientists have weighed in on the possible cause(s) of this extinction, citing natural climate and habitat change, human hunting, disease, or a combination of these ( Table 2).