“OBJECTIVE: The transsphenoidal approach has been extended

“OBJECTIVE: The transsphenoidal approach has been extended in recent selleck chemical years from tumors of the sellar region to lesions involving other areas bordering the sphenoid sinus including the cavernous sinus, Meckel’s cave, middle cranial fossa, planum sphenoidal, suprasellar region, and clivus. The goal of this study was to examine various pneumatized extensions

of the sphenoid sinus that may facilitate extended approaches directed through the sinus.

METHODS: The sphenoid sinus and its surrounding structures were examined in 18 cadaver heads, and the results were correlated with the findings from 100 computed tomography images of the sinus. The sellar type of the sphenoid sinus in which the pneumatization extended beyond the anterior sellar wall was further classified according to the various extensions of the sinus.

RESULTS: The sellar type of the sphenoid sinus was classified into the following 6 basic types based on the direction of pneumatization: sphenoid body, lateral, clival, lesser wing, anterior, and combined. The recesses and prominences, KU55933 price formed by pneumatization of the sinus, act as “”windows”" opening

from the sinus in different areas of the cranial base and may facilitate minimally invasive access to lesions in the corresponding areas.

CONCLUSION: The variations in the extensions of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus may facilitate entry into areas bordering the sphenoid sinus and play a role in the selection

of a surgical approach to lesions bordering the sinus.”
“Purpose: We reviewed the current state of knowledge about urinary tract infection in patients with https://www.selleck.cn/products/SB-202190.html diabetes from the clinical and basic science perspectives. We identified key knowledge gaps and areas for further research.

Materials and Methods: We performed a focused literature search on certain topics, including clinical studies related to etiology and pathophysiology of urinary tract infection in patients with diabetes, urinary tract infection studies in animal models of diabetes and basic science studies of the molecular mechanisms of urinary tract infection.

Results: Individuals with diabetes are at higher risk for urinary tract infection Increased susceptibility in patients with diabetes is positively associated with increased duration and severity of diabetes. Clinical epidemiological data identifying mechanisms of increased urinary tract infection susceptibility in patients with diabetes are generally lacking and indicate only that urinary tract infections in women with and without diabetes are qualitatively similar in bacterial etiology and morbid sequelae. Existing animal models for diabetes have not been well characterized for urinary tract infection research.

aureus protein A (spa) typing They were examined for their antim

aureus protein A (spa) typing. They were examined for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Results: Among the 60 isolates, ST239 was identified most frequently (34 isolates; 58%), followed by ST5 (20 isolates; 34%). Nine spa types were obtained and 4 PFGE strain families (A, B, C, and D) were resolved. Spa type t030, which corresponded to PFGE genotypes A1, A3, and A4, constituted 45% (27/60) of all isolates; spa type t037, which corresponded to PFGE type A2, accounted for 13% (8/60) of all isolates. These 2 spa genotypes belonged to ST239 and

carried SCCmec type III. Isolates genotyped as spa type t002 comprised 27% (16/60) of the study set and included isolates typed as PFGE B1 and B2, ST5, and SCCmec II. Most of MRSA Ispinesib isolates belonging to ST239 were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 50) of vancomycin among MRSA isolates belonging to ST5 (2 mg/l) was higher than that for other isolates (1 mg/l). Conclusions: These data document 2 major epidemic MRSA clones in Shenyang, China: ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III-t037/t030 and ST5-MRSA-SCCmec type II-t002.”
“Background: We present here the first application of 2-photon excited fluorescence detection (TPX) technology for the direct

screening of clinical colonization samples for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Methods: A total of 125 samples from 14 patients with previously identified MRSA carriage and 16 controls from low-prevalence settings were examined. Results: The results were compared to those obtained by both standard phenotypic and molecular methods. Givinostat In identifying MRSA carriers, i.e. persons with at least 1 MRSA positive colonization Salubrinal molecular weight sample by standard methods, the sensitivity of the TPX technique was 100%, the specificity 78%, the positive predictive value 75%, and the negative predictive value 100%. The TPX assay sensitivity per colonization sample was 89%, the specificity 93%, the positive predictive value 84%, and the negative predictive value 95%. The median time for

a true-positive test result was 3 h and 26 min; negative test results are available after 13 h. The assay capacity was 48 samples per test run. Conclusions: The TPX MRSA technique could provide early preliminary results for clinicians, while simultaneously functioning as a selective enrichment step for further conventional testing. Costs and workload associated with hospital infection control can be reduced using this high-throughput, point-of-care compatible methodology.”
“Background: Helicobacter pylori infects more than half of the world’s population. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between H. pylori infection and the risk of diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy, and to detect at which stage the infection might have higher pathogenicity in the disease-free status-diabetes mellitus-diabetic nephropathy process.

Comparison of the abilities of GDP and GTP gamma S to modulate hi

Comparison of the abilities of GDP and GTP gamma S to modulate high affinity agonist binding to 5-HT1A receptors indicated that both nucleotides were

almost 10-fold less potent in the presence of MnCl2 compared to MgCl2. This means that by inhibiting guanosine nucleotide binding to G proteins in complex with 5-HT1A receptors, Mn2+ acts as an enhancer for agonist binding and signal transduction. As the influence of Mn2+ resembles the hypersensitivity of dopaminergic system in Parkinsonial models, it can be proposed that at least some symptoms of manganism are connected with a change of signal transduction complex caused by manganese-nucleotide complexes. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“It has been postulated that a flow-dependent (and hence spatially varying)

low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration polarisation layer forms on the luminal surface of the vascular endothelium. AZD2281 chemical structure Such a layer has the potential to cause heterogeneity in the distribution of atherosclerotic CHIR-99021 lesions by spatially modulating the rate of LDL transport into the arterial wall. Theoretical analysis suggests that a transmural water flux which is spatially heterogeneous at the cellular scale can act to enhance LDL concentration polarisation in a shear dependent fashion. However, such an effect is only observed if a relevant Peclet number (i.e. the ratio of LDL convection to LDL diffusion) is of order unity or greater. Based on the diffusivity of LDL in blood plasma, such a Peclet number is found to be far less this website than unity, implying that the aforementioned enhancement and shear dependence will not occur. However, this conclusion ignores the existence of the endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL), which may inhibit the diffusion of LDL near the luminal surface of the endothelium, and hence raise any Peclet number associated with the transport of LDL. The present

study numerically investigates the effect of the EGL, as well as a heterogeneous transmural water flux, on arterial LDL concentration polarisation. Particular attention is paid to measures of LDL concentration polarisation thought relevant to the rate of transendothelial LDL transport. It is demonstrated that an EGL is unlikely to cause any additional shear dependence of such measures directly, irrespective of whether or not LDL can penetrate into the EGL. However, it is found that such measures depend significantly on the nature of the interaction between LDL and the EGL (parameterised by the height of the EGL, the depth to which LDL penetrates into the EGL, and the diffusivity of LDL in the EGL). Various processes may regulate the interaction of LDL with the EGL, possibly in a flow dependent and hence spatially non-uniform fashion.

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Schizophrenia’

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Schizophrenia’.

(C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This article reviews a free-energy formulation that advances Helmholtz’s agenda to find principles of brain function based on conservation laws and neuronal energy. It rests on advances in statistical physics, theoretical biology and machine learning to explain a remarkable range of facts about brain structure and function. We could have just scratched the surface of what this formulation offers; for example, it is becoming clear that the Bayesian brain is just one facet of the free-energy principle and that perception is an inevitable consequence of active exchange with the environment. Furthermore, one can see

easily how constructs like memory, attention, value, reinforcement and salience might disclose selleck kinase inhibitor their simple relationships within Milciclib research buy this framework.”
“The amygdala is hypothesized to play a critical role in mood regulation, yet its involvement in bipolar disorder remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare measurements of amygdala volumes in a relatively large sample of bipolar disorder patients and healthy controls ranging in age from 18 to 49 years. Subjects comprised 54 adult patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder and 41 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education. Magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 T) was performed to obtain volumetric measurements of the amygdala using a manual region-of-interest tracing method with software that allowed simultaneous visualization of the amygdala in three orthogonal planes. The anterior head of the hippocampus was removed in the sagittal plane

prior to amygdala volumetry measurement. Multiple regression analysis others was computed on amygdala volume measurements as a function of diagnosis, age, sex, and cerebral volume. Bipolar patients showed an age-related reduction of amygdala volume, but controls did not. Among bipolar subjects, amygdala volume was unrelated to medication history. There were no significant hemispheric or sex interactions with the main effects. Results support a role for amygdala dysfunction in bipolar disorder which appears most robustly in older relative to younger adult patients. Differential aging effects in bipolar disorder may compromise amygdala integrity and contribute to mood dysregulation. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Staged repair of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms is complicated, with a high incidence of interval rupture between stages. We tic scribe the systematic staged hybrid procedure of a previous endovascular repair of a descending aortic aneurysm and open surgical repair of an aortic arch aneurysm.

05, 0 1, and 0 15 mg/kg or placebo during 1 week Sleep was asses

05, 0.1, and 0.15 mg/kg or placebo during 1 week. Sleep was assessed with log and Selleckchem OSI-027 actigraphy during this week and the week before. Outcomes were the shifts in DLMO, SO, and SOL.

Treatment with melatonin significantly advanced SO and DLMO by approximately 1 h and decreased SOL by 35 min. Within the three melatonin groups, effect size was not different, but the circadian time of administration (TOA) correlated significantly with treatment effect on DLMO (r (s) = -0.33, p = 0.022) and SO (r (s) = -0.38, p = 0.004), whereas clock TOA was correlated with SO shift (r = -0.35, p = 0.006) and not with DLMO shift.

No dose-response relationship of melatonin

with SO, SOL, and DLMO is found within a dosage range of 0.05-0.15 mg/kg. The effect of exogenous melatonin on SO, SOL, and DLMO increases with an earlier circadian TOA. The soporific effects

of melatonin enhance the SO shift. This study demonstrates that melatonin for treatment of CSOI in children is effective in a dosage of 0.05 mg/kg given at least 1 to 2 h before DLMO and before desired bedtime.”
“Several psychiatric disorders involving the prefrontal Danusertib research buy cortex (PFC) are associated with a dysfunction of 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1AR). These receptors, located on interneurons and pyramidal neurons, may influence neuronal excitability through a regulation of the balance between excitation (E) and inhibition (I).

Patch-clamp recordings in mouse cortical slices were performed to determine the modulatory role of 5-HT1AR on the excitability and the synaptic plasticity of layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PyNs) of the PFC. This was done by a comparison of postsynaptic currents evoked by electrical stimulation in layer 2/3 of 5-HT1AR-KO and wild-type (WT) mice.

We observed

that the E-I balance was significantly changed from 20% E-80% I in WT mice to 23% E-77% I in 5-HT1AR-KO mice, demonstrating that 5-HT(1A)Rs contribute to the control of the balance between excitation and inhibition. Furthermore, we show that interfering with 5-HT1AR reduced the magnitude of the long term potentiation of excitation (e(LTP)) (induced by high frequency stimulation). In addition, we show that 5-HT(1A)Rs determine the orientation of the Tacrolimus (FK506) synaptic plasticity towards LTP or LTD or no plasticity through the modulation of NMDAR-mediated currents.

Our data point out to a unique role of 5-HT1A postsynaptic receptors in PFC to adapt the functional plasticity of L5PyNs towards LTP, LTD or no plasticity. This brings a new way to intervene on neuronal networks of the PFC in anxiety disorders and schizophrenia. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Guidelines for staging Wilms tumor mandate regional lymph node sampling at nephrectomy. However, the usefulness of preoperative computerized tomography in staging lymph nodes has not been rigorously investigated.

Furthermore, IEC of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using DEA

Furthermore, IEC of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using DEAE Sepharose FF adsorbents with different ligand densities was carried out, and the activity recovery of HBsAg was improved from 42% to 67% when the ligand density was decreased from 0.183 to 0.020 mmol/ml. Taking the activity recovery of HBsAg, the purification factor and the binding capacity Rabusertib in vitro into account,

DEAE Sepharose FF with a ligand density of 0.041 mmol/ml was most effective for the purification of HBsAg. Such a strategy may also be beneficial for the purification of macromolecules and multimeric proteins. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The long-lasting effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on electroencephalogram (EEG) activity are not clear. We aimed to investigate the cumulative rTMS effects on EEG and clinical outcomes in patients with major depression. Twenty-five patients with medication-resistant depression underwent 10 daily rTMS sessions over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We measured resting EEG and spectrum-power before and after the rTMS course. Clinical efficacy was evaluated with the Hamilton’s Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Selleckchem BGJ398 (WCST). In an ANOVA model, including all prefrontal electrodes, post hoc analyses revealed

significant time effects on the theta (F-1,F-24=7.89, PF299804 cost P=0.010; +43%), delta (F-1,F-24=6.58, P=0.017; +26%), and alpha (F-1,F-24=4.64, P=0.042; 31%) bands

without site specificity. Clinical correlations were observed between F4 alpha power increases and improvements in HAM-D retardation, F3 alpha power increases and improvements of the absolute changes in perseveration and error number on the WCST, and C3 and C4 theta power increases and improvements of the percent change in perseveration and error number on the WCST following rTMS. Consecutive prefrontal rTMS could induce long-lasting EEG potentiations beyond the aftereffects, resulting in improved cognitive and depressive symptoms. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Microarrays are suitable for multiplexed detection and typing of pathogens. Avian influenza virus (AIV) is currently classified into 16 H (hemagglutinin) and 9 N (neuraminidase) subtypes, whereas Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains differ in virulence and are broadly classified into high and low pathogenicity types. In this study, three assays for detection and typing of poultry viruses were developed on an automated microarray platform: a multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of AIV and detection and pathotyping of NDV. and two separate assays for differentiating all AIV H and N subtypes. The AIV-NDV multiplex assay detected all strains in a 63 virus panel, and accurately typed all high pathogenicity NOV strains tested.

We use desolvation energies amino acid and atom type – of the res

We use desolvation energies amino acid and atom type – of the residues present

in the interface. Selleckchem EPZ6438 The prediction is performed via two state-of-the-art classification techniques, namely linear dimensionality reduction (LDR) and support vector machines (SVM). The results on a newly compiled data set, namely BPPI, which is a joint and modified version of two well-known data sets consisting of 213 obligate and 303 non-obligate complexes, show that the best prediction is achieved with SVM (76.94% accuracy) when using desolvation energies of atom-type features. Also, the proposed approach outperforms the previous solvent accessible area-based approaches using SVM (75% accuracy) and LDR (73.06% accuracy). Moreover, a visual analysis of desolvation energies in obligate and non-obligate complexes shows that a few atom-type pairs are good descriptors for these types of complexes.”
“Purpose: AMN-107 datasheet A minority of children with Wilms tumor will experience tumor recurrence. In a previous pilot study we found an association between

expression of an immune costimulatory molecule, B7-H1, and tumor recurrence in favorable histology Wilms tumor. We sought to verify the prognostic value of B7-H1 as a biomarker in favorable histology Wilms tumor.

Materials and Methods: We performed a nested case-control study of tumors from the Fifth National Wilms Tumor Study. We randomly selected 44 children unsuccessfully treated (cases) and 49 who were successfully treated for favorable histology Wilms tumor (controls). Cases and controls were matched based on tumor stage, and the analysis was restricted to children who underwent initial resection. We excluded patients with stage IV or V disease and those treated with chemotherapy or radiation. Tumor specimens were stained for B7-H1 expression.

Results: Of the 93 total samples analyzed 60 (65%) demonstrated B7-H1 staining, with staining diffusely present in 13 (22%) and blastema predominant in 34 (57%). B7-H1 expression was associated with failure of initial therapy (p = 0.006). Patients with tumors showing less than 20% B7-H1 positive cells were at lower risk for treatment failure, while

those with tumors exhibiting greater than 60% B7-H1 positive cells were at greater risk for treatment failure. This association appeared to be independent of tumor Selleck GDC 0449 stage.

Conclusions: B7-H1 expression by favorable histology Wilms tumor is associated with an increased risk of failure of initial therapy.”
“Knowledge about protein-protein interactions (PPIs) unveils the molecular mechanisms of biological processes. However, the volume and content of published biomedical literature on protein interactions is expanding rapidly, making it increasingly difficult for interaction database curators to detect and curate protein interaction information manually. We present a multiple kernel learning-based approach for automatic PPI extraction from biomedical literature.

“Use of preemptive analgesia in Neonatal Intensive Care Un

“Use of preemptive analgesia in Neonatal Intensive Care Units is recommended for severe and/or invasive procedures. However, the potential long-term consequences of such analgesia, which may be prolonged, are only beginning to

be studied. In this pilot study, a subset of subjects previously enrolled in the Neurological Outcomes and Preemptive Analgesia in Neonates (NEOPAIN) trial was assessed at early childhood. These expreterm infants (born at 23-32 weeks of gestational age) required intubation within 72 h postpartum and were randomized to receive either preemptive morphine analgesia (maximum of 14 days) or placebo within 8 h post-intubation. THZ1 in vivo At 5-7 years of age, neuropsychological outcomes, morphometrics, adaptive behavior, parent-rated behavior, motivation, and short-term memory were measured. Although overall IQ and academic achievement did not differ between the morphine treated (n=14) and Sirtuin activator placebo (n=5) groups, preemptive morphine analgesia was associated with distinct differences in other outcome variables. Head circumference of morphine

treated children was approximately 7% smaller (Cohen’s d: 2.83, effect size large) and body weight was approximately 4% less (Cohen’s d: 0.81, effect size large); however, height did not differ. In the short-term memory task (delayed matching to sample), Carnitine dehydrogenase morphine treated children exhibited significantly longer choice response latencies than placebo children (3.86 +/- 0.33 and 2.71 +/- 0.24 s, respectively) (p<0.03) and completed approximately 27% less of the task

than placebo children (Cohen’s d: 0.96, effect size large). Parents described morphine treated children as having more social problems, an effect specific to creating and maintaining friendships (Cohen’s d: -0.83, effect size large). Despite the small sample size and the preliminary nature of this study, these results are strongly suggestive of long-lasting effects of preemptive morphine analgesia. A larger investigation with more comprehensive assessments of some of these key features will enable a more complete understanding of the relationship between preemptive morphine treatment and long-term neurocognitive, behavioral, and adaptive outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Purpose: Mid urethral slings are effective surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence. However, 5% to 20% of patients still experience surgical failure with clinically significant recurrent or persistent stress urinary incontinence. Since a subset of these failures may be caused by improper tape position, we elucidated whether additional paraurethral fixation of a tape to prevent displacement during tensioning could improve the transobturator sling outcome.

This review describes the pathobiology of hyperphosphatemia that

This review describes the pathobiology of hyperphosphatemia that Erastin develops as a consequence of positive phosphate balance in chronic kidney disease and the mechanisms by which hyperphosphatemia acts on neointimal vascular cells that are stimulated to mineralize in chronic kidney disease. The characterization of hyperphosphatemia of chronic kidney disease as a distinct syndrome in clinical medicine with unique disordered skeletal remodeling, heterotopic mineralization and cardiovascular morbidity is presented.”
“Aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), a progressive renal interstitial fibrosis frequently associated with urothelial malignancies, was initially reported in a Belgian cohort

of more than 100 patients after the intake of slimming pills containing a Chinese herb, Aristolochia fangchi. Although botanicals known or suspected to contain aristolochic acid (AA) were no longer permitted in many countries, several AAN cases were regularly observed all around the world. The incidence Selleck Nepicastat of AAN is probably much higher than initially thought, especially in Asia and the Balkans. In Asian countries, where traditional medicines are very popular, the complexity of the pharmacopoeia represents a high risk for AAN because of

the frequent substitution of the botanical products by AA-containing herbs. In the Balkan regions, the exposure to AA found in flour obtained from wheat contaminated with seeds of Aristolochia clematitis could be responsible for the so-called Balkan-endemic nephropathy. Finally, despite the Food and Drug Administration’s warnings concerning the safety of botanical remedies containing AA, these herbs Bromosporine molecular weight are still

sold via the Internet.”
“To determine whether the cardiovascular effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D is dependent on calcium and/ or phosphorus, mice with targeted deletion of the 25(OH) D 1 alpha-hydroxylase and their wild-type littermates were fed a normal diet or a diet to rescue the ambient serum calcium and phosphorus levels. Mice on the normal diet were treated daily with vehicle or 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) while mice on the rescue diet received vehicle, captopril or losartan. After four weeks the vehicle-treated knockout mice developed hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and impaired cardiac function along with an up-regulation of the renin-angiotensin system in both renal and cardiac tissues. Although the serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normalized in knockout mice on the rescue diet, abnormalities in blood pressure, cardiac structure-function and the renin-angiotensin system remained. In contrast, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) not only normalized serum calcium and phosphorus levels but also normalized blood pressure, cardiac structure-function and the renin-angiotensin system. Treatment of the knockout mice with either captopril or losartan normalized blood pressure and cardiac structure and function although renin expression remained elevated.

95; 95% CI, 1 37 to 2 77)



95; 95% CI, 1.37 to 2.77).


Most in-flight medical emergencies were related to syncope, respiratory symptoms, or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physician was frequently the responding medical volunteer. Few in-flight medical emergencies resulted in diversion of aircraft or death; one fourth of passengers who had an in-flight medical

emergency underwent additional evaluation in a hospital.”
“Casein kinase I epsilon/delta phosphorylates certain clock-related proteins as part of a complex arrangement of transcriptional/translational feedback loops that comprise the circadian oscillator in mammals. Pharmacologic inhibition leads to a delay of Forskolin the oscillations with the magnitude of this effect dependent upon the timing

of drug administration.

Earlier studies by our lab described the actions of a selective CKI epsilon/delta inhibitor, PF-670462, on circadian behavior following acute dosing; the present work extended these studies to chronic once-daily treatment.

Gross motor activity was used to estimate the circadian rhythms of rats maintained under Selumetinib a 12 L:12 D cycle. PF-670462, 10 or 30 mg/kg/day s.c., was administered once daily for 20 days either at ZT6 or ZT11 (i.e., 6 or 11 h after light onset).

Chronic administration of PF-670462, performed at a fixed time of day, produced delays in the activity onsets of rats that cumulated with the duration of dosing. Dosing at ZT11 yielded more robust delays than dosing at ZT6 in keeping with earlier phase-response analyses with this agent.

The magnitude of the shifts in activity onsets achieved with chronic dosing of PF-670462

appears to be a function of the dose and the previously established phase relationship. Its cumulative effect further suggests that the pharmacodynamic t (1/2) of the drug greatly exceeds its pharmacokinetic one. Most importantly, these changes in circadian behavior occurred in the presence of a fixed L:D cycle, confirming the drug to be a robust modulator of circadian phase in the presence of the natural zeitgeber.”
“DNAJB6 is a constitutively expressed member of the HSP40 family. It has been described as a negative regulator of breast tumor progression and a regulator of epithelial phenotype. Expression of DNAJB6 is reported to be compromised with tumor progression. However, factors responsible for its downregulation are still undefined. We used GDC-0994 price a knowledge-based screen for identifying miRNAs capable of targeting DNAJB6. In this work, we present our findings that hsa-miR-632 (miR-632) targets the coding region of DNAJB6. Invasive and metastatic breast cancer cells express high levels of miR-632 compared with mammary epithelial cells. Analysis of RNA from breast tumor specimens reveals inverse expression patterns of DNAJB6 transcript and miR-632. In response to exogenous miR-632 expression, DNAJB6 protein levels are downregulated and the resultant cell population shows significantly increased invasive ability.