First, epidemiological studies have found that SS2 outbreaks are usually infrequent and only affect a small number of pigs, which can lead to underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis. Second, pigs infected with SS2 do not always show obvious clinical symptoms, and may become carriers without showing clinical signs. Finally, based on its polysaccharide capsular antigens, at least 35 serotypes of S. suis exist. Isolates belonging to other serotypes (such as 1, 1/2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9) have also been associated with disease in pigs [28, 29]. Common
antigens had been found to be shared between SS2 and these other serotypes (unpublished data from our lab). To reduce these possible interferences, we used www.selleckchem.com/products/Tipifarnib(R115777).html pigs with clear backgrounds as animal models, and convalescent sera were prepared following artificial infection. Until recently, the exact mechanism of SS2 transmission (from LXH254 purchase pig to human or between pigs) was still poorly understood, but was thought to involve aerosol transmission or other pathways [28–30]. However, some hypotheses about the critical stages of the infection, such as bacterial invasion from the mucosal surfaces to the bloodstream, survival of the bacteria in blood, and
invasion from blood into the central nervous system have been presented . Regardless of the mechanism of SS2 invasion, circulation in the blood plays an important role during SS2 disease development. In addition, S. suis is an agent of zoonosis, afflicting people in close contact Nintedanib with infected pigs or pork-derived products. The organisms probably gain entry via small wounds or through inhalation [4, 10, 29]. Furthermore, transmission between pigs in herds through cutaneous wounds has been suggested . In light of
these considerations, intravenous and intramuscular inoculations were employed to assay the expression of SS2 in vivo, and to try to mimic natural infection (such as the middle or late stage of the infection). In this study, we used real-time PCR to analyze the induction of the expression of IVI genes under different environmental conditions. Real-time PCR results demonstrated that the expression of six of the 10 selected genes was upregulated under in vivo conditions. The upregulation time points for these six genes were 12, 24, and 36 h for ss-1616 and trag, 24 h for hprk and sdh, and 36 h for nlpa and ss-1298. This upregulated expression suggests that these genes may play a significant role during the course of SS2 infection (middle, late, or whole stage of infection). The expression profiles of the other four genes (ysirk, srt, cwh, and ss-1955) showed that they were not obviously upregulated under the in vivo condition (Figure 3). There are two possible explanations for this result. First, since we measured the in vivo gene expression at 12, 24, and 36 h pi, it is possible that we missed the time when the levels of expression of these genes were high relative to the expression of the same gene in vitro.