Characteristic sulfur granules on histopathology make the

Characteristic sulfur granules on histopathology make the

diagnosis of actinomycosis [5] and [6]. High suspicion is the main point for making a diagnosis, as radiological imaging is not diagnostic, as seen in this case. Management of the disease with medical drugs should be tried first. Rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol are the basis of breast tuberculosis treatment [2], [3] and [4]. Surgery should be reserved for medical treatment-resistant cases. In endemic areas, tuberculosis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an inflammatory breast mass. “
“Conjoined twinning selleck chemicals llc is a rare occurrence with an incidence of about 1 in 50,000 pregnancies, 60% of which result in stillbirth [1]. There is an approximate find more 2–3:1 female to male predominance [1]. The classification of conjoined twins is complex, but is usually based on degree and anatomic location of the fusion [2]. Parapagus twins always share a conjoined pelvis with one or two sacrums and a single symphysis [2]. Dicephalic parapagus

twins share a common thorax and account for approximately 3.7% of all conjoined twins [1]. A 37-year-old Caucasian female, para 1–0–2–1 was referred to our department at 27 weeks gestation for evaluation of conjoined twins. The patient was a late registrant for care at 22 weeks gestation and her initial ultrasound was performed at 26 weeks gestation showing polyhydraminos and a dicephalic fetus. The patient denied any pertinent past medical or surgical history and any history of drug or toxin exposure. Both 2D and 3D ultrasound were performed on a Voluson 730 scanner

(General Electric Health Care, Milwaukee, Megestrol Acetate WI) with a 4–7-MHz transducer at our institution with findings consistent with dicephalic conjoined twins with acrania (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). Two spines were identified and appeared parallel (Fig. 3) with fusion in the thoraco-lumbar region with associated rachischisis. Cardiac imaging was difficult secondary to fetal positioning and was incomplete. There was no apparent duplication of the abdominal organs and a single 2 vessel umbilical cord was present. The largest diameter of the dicephalic presenting part was 8.8 cm, equivalent to a 35 week singleton biparietal diameter (Fig. 4). Given the findings of an assured non-viable fetal condition, the option of pregnancy termination was offered. The patient was admitted later that day and underwent an induction of labor after cardioplegia with laminaria and pitocin augmentation. She had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of a stillborn, dicephalic female fetus in cephalic presentation. The family declined chromosomal analysis, but desired a limited autopsy. Her postpartum course was uncomplicated. Permission for autopsy, excluding head, was obtained from the parents on the day of delivery. External examination was notable for a dicephalus dipus dibrachius female fetus (Fig. 5). Both fetal heads demonstrated acrania.

Levels of activity go up and down, my lungs do not stay the same

Levels of activity go up and down, my lungs do not stay the same all the time … you can’t just say this regimen is going to work, because in three weeks three hours, your breathing could be completely different. The routine and peer support of structured exercise sessions were helpful for motivating participants to overcome some of the barriers to activity imposed by chronic ill health. There’s a time in the week when you’re going to be there so it doesn’t matter what you feel like, you’re going to do it … You’re

gonna go there, so you’ve got motivation. Our findings suggest that people with COPD perceive peer and professional exercise-focused support to be important for maintaining an active lifestyle after pulmonary rehabilitation. This complements previous qualitative studies where a need for ongoing but less comprehensive Enzalutamide order rehabilitation has been articulated EPZ-6438 supplier (Toms and Harrison 2002, Wilson et al 2007). The importance of routine and social reinforcement within the exercise setting is also supported by previous research in general populations (Dishman et al 1985). While our study was in progress, Lewis and Cramp (2010) published their qualitative

exploration of facilitators and barriers to exercise maintenance amongst six pulmonary rehabilitation graduates, identifying comparable themes of peer and professional encouragement, health status and environment. Adding to these

findings, our study sampled a larger group and aimed to explore more deeply the rationale underpinning identified factors. Confidence featured within several themes in the current study. Participants identified pulmonary rehabilitation as instrumental in enhancing physical activity participation by improving confidence to manage breathlessness and reducing fear of activity, reflecting the findings of Williams and colleagues (2010). Potential difficulties with continued MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit activity were believed to be surmountable given access to structured exercise with social integration among peers and skilled staff. Our data suggest this desire for exercise opportunities after pulmonary rehabilitation is related to the confidence of individuals with COPD to continue with behaviours adopted during pulmonary rehabilitation. Although ‘confidence’ is a nonspecific term referring to strength of belief, it is an important component within the construct of perceived self-efficacy – the belief in one’s ability to succeed in a specific situation (Bandura 1997). Low self-efficacy for coping with exertional breathlessness develops commonly in COPD (Wigal et al 1991). Our findings, and those of Williams and colleagues (2010), suggest pulmonary rehabilitation participation can redress this negative influence on physical activity.

L’HTPPNN a été décrite après l’utilisation des IRS par la femme e

L’HTPPNN a été décrite après l’utilisation des IRS par la femme enceinte et reste une forme d’HTP grave Epigenetics Compound Library screening avec une mortalité élevée. Dans la classification des HTP Dana Point (2008), l’HTPPNN faisait partie du groupe 1, mais dans la nouvelle classification elle a été encadrée dans un groupe 1”, car elle présente plus de différences que de similitudes avec les HTAP du groupe 1 [1] and [21]. C’est probablement la forme la plus fréquente d’HTP. À part les valvulopathies, le mécanisme le plus

souvent retrouvé consiste en une dysfonction diastolique du ventricule gauche qui va entraîner une élévation des pressions de remplissage de celui-ci, une augmentation de la pression auriculaire gauche et, par conséquence, une augmentation passive de la pression artérielle pulmonaire [31]. Sur le plan hémodynamique, ces patients avec une HTP post-capillaire « pure » ont une PCP > 15 mmHg et un gradient de pression diastolique (GPD = PAPd-PCP) < 7 mmHg. L’objectif pour ces patients est l’optimisation de leur traitement cardiologique en essayant

de corriger leurs facteurs de risques. En fonction des résultats du cathétérisme cardiaque droit, les patients ayant un GPD > 7 mmHg ont une HTP post-capillaire avec une composante pré-capillaire et les traitements spécifiques de l’HTAP ont été déjà testés dans de petites Selleck Small molecule library études sans résultats concluants jusqu’à présent [1], [31] and [32]. Les mécanismes impliqués dans cette forme d’HTP sont soit une hypoxie alvéolaire, conséquence d’un apport insuffisant en oxygène, soit une vasoconstriction hypoxique, mécanisme réflexe dans les maladies respiratoires chroniques obstructives ou restrictives. En fonction de l’hémodynamique artérielle pulmonaire, on distingue trois groupes de patients avec des maladies respiratoires chroniques : (i) patients sans HTP (PAPm < 25 mmHg), (ii) patients avec une HTP (PAPm > 25 mmHg), et (iii) patients avec

une HTP sévère (PAPm > 35 mmHg ou PAPm > 25 mmHg et Index Cardiac < 2 l/min/m2) [33]. Concernant l’HTP, l’utilisation des termes « proportionnée » ou « disproportionnée » n’est pas recommandée. Les patients ayant une HTP sévère sont peu nombreux et nécessitent une évaluation exhaustive sur le plan fonctionnel, respiratoire, gazométrique et de l’imagerie thoracique Rolziracetam dans des centres experts. Jusqu’à présent, il existe peu de données concernant l’utilisation des traitements spécifiques de l’HTAP pour ces patients et, par conséquence, leur utilisation doit être limitée à des situations particulières. L’hypertension pulmonaire post-embolique (HTPPE) est liée à la persistance et l’organisation fibreuse des caillots après une ou plusieurs embolies pulmonaires aiguës. Cette forme d’HTP est de plus en plus diagnostiquée et est potentiellement curable en cas d’obstruction vasculaire proximale accessible à une thrombo-endartérectomie [34]. Tous ces patients doivent être évalués sur le plan hémodynamique et de l’imagerie, dans des centres experts, afin de pouvoir décider de l’opérabilité.

Approaches to achieve a higher efficacy include optimising the de

Approaches to achieve a higher efficacy include optimising the delivery to and interaction with dendritic cells (DCs) and the addition of immune potentiators to improve the activation of these DCs. Lessons to improve the interaction with DCs can be learned from nature, as all pathogens are particulates. Particles

are better taken up by DCs and may provide an additional benefit by offering prolonged antigen delivery due to slow antigen release [2]. Liposomes are elegant and flexible nanoparticulates that have been used for a long time as JQ1 cell line drug delivery systems. Actually, when they were used for the first time in the pharmaceutical field in 1974, it was for the delivery of vaccines [3]. Since then they have been used successfully for the delivery of protein antigens [4], [5] and [6] and DNA vaccines [7] and [8]. By changing the lipid composition of liposomes, their characteristics can be varied. The usage of positively charged lipids, for instance, creates cationic liposomes. It has become clear that cationic liposomes are one of the most effective liposomal delivery systems for antigens to antigen presenting cells [9], [10], [11] and [12]. Liposomes themselves may function as an adjuvant by improving the uptake of antigens by DCs, but generally lack VE-822 order intrinsic immune-stimulatory effects [11] and [13]. By co-encapsulation

of an immune potentiator, the immunogenicity of liposomes can be improved. As classified by Schijns [14], immune potentiators until (i) interact with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) (Signal 0) [15] and [16]; (ii) are co-stimulatory molecules necessary for activating naïve T cells (Signal 2) or (iii) act as a ‘danger-signal’ [17]. Pathogens express specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are recognised by PRRs, of which the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an important subclass. All cells, but mainly antigen presenting cells such as DCs, have TLRs that recognise specific ligands. In humans 11 different TLRs have been identified, the majority of them being specific for microbial products. Most TLRs are present on

the cell surface, but TLRs that recognise nucleic acids (TLR3, 7, 8 and 9) are located intracellularly [18]. In this study we co-encapsulated a model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA) and two TLR ligands in cationic liposomes. The selected TLR ligands are Pam3CSK4, a synthetic lipoprotein consisting of a tri-palmitoyl-S-glyceryl cysteine lipopeptide with a pentapeptide SKKKK (PAM), and unmethylated CpG oligonucleotide (CpG). PAM is recognised by TLR2 in association with TLR1, both cell surface expressed receptors. CpG is a TLR9 ligand, which is expressed intracellularly. By co-encapsulation in liposomes it is ensured that both the antigen and the immune potentiator are co-delivered to the DCs, which is considered essential for induction of a strong immune response [19], [20] and [21]. To examine the effect of co-encapsulation, a comparison was made to solutions of OVA mixed with the respective TLR ligands.

GR075800M “
“The US Centers for Disease Control


GR075800M. “
“The US Centers for Disease Control

and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all children aged 6 months through 18 years receive influenza vaccine on a yearly basis [1]. The live attenuated influenza virus vaccine (LAIV; MedImmune LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) was approved in the United States for use in eligible individuals aged 5–49 years of age in 2003. Based on additional clinical trials, LAIV was approved for use in children 2–4 years of age in September 2007 with precautions against use in children <24 months old and children 24–59 months old with asthma, recurrent wheezing, or altered immunocompetence. LAIV was not approved Crizotinib for use in children younger than 24 months owing to an increased risk of medically significant wheezing in LAIV-vaccinated children 6–23 months of age (5.9% LAIV vs. 3.8% trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine [TIV]) and

an increased rate of hospitalization in LAIV-vaccinated children 6–11 months of age (6.1% LAIV vs. 2.6% TIV) observed in a study conducted in the 2004–2005 influenza season [2]. After the 2007 approval of LAIV for use in children 24–59 months of age, MedImmune learn more made a commitment to the US Food and Drug Administration to assess the frequency of use and safety of LAIV in specific groups of children <5 years of age for whom the vaccine is not intended. These groups included children younger than 24 months and children 24–59 months of age with asthma or recurrent wheezing or who were immunocompromised. The purpose of this study was to quantify, through 3 influenza seasons in these populations, the rate of LAIV vaccination and to monitor emergency department (ED) visits or hospitalizations occurring within 42 days postvaccination with LAIV compared with that of TIV. The current report summarizes the findings from the 2007 to 2008 and 2008 to 2009 influenza seasons. Children from younger than 60 months who received LAIV or TIV during the study period and were enrolled in a health insurance plan with claims data captured by MarketScan® Research Data

(Thomson Reuters, New York, NY, USA) were eligible for analysis. The MarketScan database is a health insurance claims database that covers approximately 17 million individuals. To protect patient anonymity, only the month and year of birth were available for age determination in the dataset available to researchers. As a result, the first day of the birth month was assigned as each child’s date of birth. This ensured that all children identified as <24 months of age were truly younger than 24 months. For children meeting the age criteria in either season (2007–2008 and 2008–2009), all claims from August 1 of the prior year (2006 and 2007, respectively) through March 31 of the season (2008 and 2009, respectively) were obtained.

On average ‘very easy’ leaflet had a mean score of 5 4, ‘easy’ le

On average ‘very easy’ leaflet had a mean score of 5.4, ‘easy’ leaflets had a mean score of 5.97 ± 0.35, ‘fairly easy’ leaflets had a mean score of 6.86 ± 0.25, ‘standard’ leaflets had a mean score of 8.53 ± 0.53 and ‘fairly difficult’ leaflets had a mean score of 10.69 ± 0.78 (see Table 6). According to FK-GL score 37.21% of leaflets

were assessed to be ‘fairly difficult’ and 27.91% were assessed to be ‘standard’. This shows that companies do not give adequate attention for the importance of readability. This may make the leaflets less comprehensible. This study was well compared with other Selleck INCB024360 studies9 and 10 that fewer leaflets met the criteria of having less than eighth grade level. When ‘difficult’ leaflets were given to 500 consumers (Group 1), 93 consumers felt it was ‘very easy’, 107 consumers rated as ‘easy’, 89 consumers rated as ‘standard’ and 211 consumers rated as ‘difficult’. In this group 129 consumers were post-graduates, 155 consumers were graduates and 216 consumers completed High school education (see Table 7). When ‘standard’ leaflets were given to 500 consumers (Group 2), 142 consumers felt it was ‘very easy’, 123 consumers rated as ‘easy’, 178 consumers rated as ‘standard’ and 57 consumers rated as ‘difficult’.

In this group 164 consumers were Sirolimus in vivo post-graduates, 193 consumers were graduates and 143 consumers completed High school education (see Table 8). When ‘fairly easy’ leaflets were given to 500 consumers (Group 3), 196 patient felt it was ‘very easy’, 204 consumers rated as ‘easy’, 48 consumers rated as ‘standard’ and 52 consumers rated as ‘difficult’. In this group 188 consumers were post graduates, 212 consumers were graduates and 100 consumers completed High school education all (see Table 9). In India, generally CMILs are continued to be prepared in English and with higher proportion of consumers with English illiteracy. CMILs, which are prepared without taking consideration of reading level of consumers and proper layout and design, may not achieve the intended purpose. This is an important aspect that any company has to reckon while preparing leaflets and

at least in some major local languages in which CMILs have to be prepared. For assessing consumers’ perception, consumers were divided into 3 groups. Each group had 500 consumers. The leaflets which were classified by their difficulty according to the formulae were grouped together and given to the consumers. Group 1 was given difficult leaflet. Group 2 was given standard leaflet and group 3 was given ‘fairly easy’ leaflet. Consumers randomly picked a leaflet to read it and then rated it. Consumers who can read English were enrolled into the study. It was found that most of the consumers were graduates or having higher qualification. So, most of them could read the level of 8th standard. Only a few consumers with high school qualification found leaflets difficult.

However, the life expectancy of men from upper and lower middle i

However, the life expectancy of men from upper and lower middle income countries varied widely. Regardless of the type of disease (communicable, non-communicable diseases or injuries),

men have a higher mortality rate compared to women (Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and Fig. 4). Men from higher-income countries have lower mortality rates compared to those from the other income countries. However, the mortality rates are similar among the upper-, lower-middle and low-income countries, particularly for non-communicable diseases and injuries. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is lower in Asia compared to Europe, USA and the world except for smoking (Fig. 5). Within Asia, men in higher-income countries tend to drink more alcohol, smoke less, have higher total cholesterol, are less active physically and more overweight than poorer-income countries. MDV3100 in vivo A similar pattern is also observed in Europe. selleckchem The level of systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and body mass index was directly related to the income status of the country (Fig. 6). Between 1980 and 2009, while the level of systolic blood pressure (SBP) decreased in higher-income Asian countries, the opposite trend was observed in the lower-income countries. During the same

period, the fasting blood glucose and the body mass index continued to rise for all income countries while the total cholesterol level decreased over time. This study confirms that, in Asia, men have a shorter life expectancy and higher mortality due to communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases and injuries compared to women. This discrepancy is particularly between higher- and lower-income countries. There is also a rising trend for most of the cardiovascular risk factors, particularly in the middle-income countries. Overall, Asian men have a shorter life expectancy (70 years) compared to those in Europe (72 years) and USA (76 years) (WHO, 2011b). However, there is a wide variation in life expectancy across different income groups in Asia. For

instance, the life expectancy of men from Singapore and Hong Kong (80 years) is comparable to the average life expectancy of men from high-income countries in the world (78 years) (WHO, 2011a). On the other hand, men from low-income countries, such as PAK6 Afghanistan, Cambodia and Myanmar, have one of the shortest life expectancy in the world. The difference between the highest and the lowest life expectancy of men in Asia (24 years; Qatar 83 years vs Afghanistan 59 years) is larger than that of Europe (17 years; San Marino 82 years vs Ukraine 65 years) (WHO, 2011b). This pattern is also observed in women, which showed a difference of 26 year in Asia (Hong Kong 87 years vs Afghanistan 61 years) and 10 years in Europe (Switzerland/France/Andorra/Monaco/Spain/Italy 85 years vs Republic of Moldova/Albania 75 years) (WHO, 2011b).

Allergy Therapeutics

Allergy Therapeutics selleckchem market aluminium-free SCIT products. “
“Conventional aluminium-containing adjuvants have been used in vaccine formulations for decades but promote poor induction of Th1 or cell-mediated immunity [1] and [2]

and require refrigeration during transportation and storage. Approximately 50% of vaccines are discarded globally, largely due to cold chain disruption [3] and [4]. Therefore, a major objective of vaccine formulation t is to develop a safe, immunogenic composition which addresses the issues of immune bias and stability. Protein-coated microcrystals (PCMCs) are a recent advance in vaccine formulation [5] and have the potential to by-pass the cold chain. Originally developed to stabilise enzymes for

industrial applications [5], [6], [7], [8] and [9], PCMCs are formed by rapid co-precipitation of protein(s) with an amino acid or sugar, producing particles with an inert core microcrystal coated with protein(s) [6], [8] and [9]. Vaccine antigens, loaded onto PCMCs, exhibited much higher resistance to heat stress compared to native antigens [5] and [7]. These reports used PCMC formulations which were instantly soluble in aqueous buffer [5], [6], [7], [8] and [9]. In this study, novel sustained-release PCMCs have been used which are poorly soluble due to modification of their outer surface with sparingly soluble CaP. CaP served as an adjuvant in some early acellular vaccines [10] and [11], and is well-tolerated in man [11], [12], [13], [14], [15] and [16]. CaP also this website enhances Th1-biased immunity although this may be antigen-dependent [11], [17] and [18]. Here, the immunogenicity of CaP-modified PCMCs loaded with different model antigens was investigated. DT, a formaldehyde-toxoided antigen [19], [20] and [21], and BSA have been used extensively as model antigens when validating new vaccine formulations [22], [23], Phosphoprotein phosphatase [24] and [25]. The DT preparation was the 2nd international standard

for use in flocculation tests (02/176, NIBSC, UK). CyaA* was purified and characterised as described previously [26], [27] and [28]. BSA was from Sigma and BSA-FITC was from Life Technologies, UK. All reagents were of the highest grade available and were used at rt. The aqueous solution was prepared in endotoxin-free, sterile water (Sigma) and contained 30 mg/ml l-glutamine as the core component of the PCMCs, trehalose and the test antigens, sufficient to give final loadings of 10% and 0.2–0.4%, respectively, in the PCMC preparation. To precipitate PCMCs, 3 ml of the aqueous solution was added drop-wise to 60 ml of rapidly stirred isopropanol and stirring continued for 1 min at 1500 rpm. For CaP-modified PCMCs, the required concentration of NaH2PO4 was included in the aqueous solution and CaCl2 was included in the isopropanol at a 2-fold molar excess compared to NaH2PO4. PCMCs were collected by vacuum filtration onto PVDF hydrophilic 0.

Dr Sluka’s Preface is informative She summarises the human pain

Dr Sluka’s Preface is informative. She summarises the human pain experience as involving three mechanismbased categories: 1) peripheral mechanisms that drive pain, ie, acute pain, 2) central mechanisms selleck screening library that drive pain, ie, chronic

pain, and 3) a combined category, ie, subacute/ chronic. The opening section (the book is divided into four parts) provides definitions of common terms and a brief introduction to important explanatory theories and models, including the useful International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). This is followed by extensively referenced chapters on pain mechanisms, using human and animal research evidence to support description of peripheral and central processes. A highlight is the well worked chapter selleck chemicals on pain variability, which reminds us that we cannot embed our personal pain experiences in our interpretation of the pain experience of others. This emphasises that the complexity of the pain experience might be more important to assess than duration of the pain. This perhaps contradicts the simplistic – but well accepted – categorisation of pain based

on duration proposed by Dr Sluka in the preface. The middle sections of the book address assessment and treatment including a section devoted to interdisciplinary management. The chapters include exercise, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential therapy (reflecting Dr Sluka’s research interests), manual therapy, medical management, and psychological approaches. The presentation of common tools of pain assessment and treatment is well done, although the application of these may be enhanced SB-3CT by reintroducing the models of pain described in

earlier sections e.g. as per the ICF in the IASP-recommended curricula. It was somewhat disappointing that the consideration of the more physical therapy modalities did not include analysis of their psychological or neuroplastic potential. Once we understand the variability of pain (Chapter 4), it is improbable that an intimate treatment interaction or particular modality of treatment will not influence nonspecific treatment effects. For example, focusing on the hypoalgesic effects of exercise without incorporating the potential for learning (ie, challenging concepts of re-injury) and fear-reduction through physical activity seems not to align with some of the earlier sentiments of the book. The final section of the book considers pain ‘syndromes’ and some case studies. These are valuable as they present the complexity of some common pain conditions and also illustrate how some of the assessment and treatment approaches might be applied. In summary, this book is an ambitious attempt to capture the complexity of the human pain experience and explain how physical therapists can apply an evidence-based approach to manage pain. It is well structured and well researched and, for the most part, is likely to be valuable for its intended target audience.

1Ficus is a large genus of woody trees, shrubs, vines and epiphyt

1Ficus is a large genus of woody trees, shrubs, vines and epiphytes widely distributed throughout the tropics of both hemispheres with

about 850 species of which approximately 65 species are found in India. 2 The species, Ficus racemosa Linn. syn. F. glomerata Roxb. (Vern. Gular) is large sized spreading tree commonly known as ‘Cluster-fig’ found throughout the greater part of India. The stem bark is antiseptic, antipyretic and used in the treatment of various skin diseases, ulcers, diabetes, piles, dysentery, asthma, gonorrhea, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, hemoptysis and urinary diseases. Fruits are a good remedy for visceral obstruction and also useful in regulating diarrhea and constipation. 3 A uterine tonic prepared using the aqueous extract of fruits Selleckchem Autophagy inhibitor was found to show effect similar to oxytocin. 4 Antiulcer, hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities from fruits have been reported. 5 Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, Galunisertib nmr antifungal, analgesic, antipyretic, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, hepatoprotective, hypotensive and various other activities of the leaves have also been evaluated. 6 and 7 A glance at literature revealed the isolation of triterpenoids,

steroids, coumarins and phenolic esters from fruits, latex, leaves, heartwood and stem bark 5 and only one reference reporting the isolation of β-sitosterol from root bark. 8 Since the plant is medicinally important, therefore, the present work with the object to identify the secondary metabolites in the F. racemosa root bark and investigate the antioxidant capacity of root bark and heartwood was undertaken. Melting points were recorded in open glass capillaries in Toshniwal apparatus. The IR spectra were recorded on a Shimadzu 8400S FTIR spectrometer using KBr pellets. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded at 300 MHz

and 75 MHz respectively on Jeol AL 300 MHz spectrometer Carnitine dehydrogenase using CDCl3 and DMSO-d6 as solvents and TMS as the internal reference. Mass spectra were recorded on Waters Xevo Q-TOF spectrometer. The fractionation was performed in Chromatographic column using silica gel 60–120 mesh (Merck) and thin layer chromatograms were conducted on Merck silica gel G plates. In general, spots were visualized under UV light as also spraying ceric ammonium sulfate followed by heating at 100 °C. The in vitro antioxidant activity experiments were monitored by UV–visible spectrophotometer (Pharmaspec-1700 Shimadzu). Silica gel 60–120 mesh (Merck) was used for column chromatography. Silica gel 60 F254 precoated aluminium sheets (0.2 mm, Merck) were employed for TLC. DPPH was purchased from Himedia while ascorbic acid, phosphate buffer, potassium ferrocyanide and trichloroacetic acid from Sigma Aldrich (India). The botanical material of F. racemosa Linn., Moraceae was collected from University of Rajasthan Campus, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India in March 2010 and authenticated by Herbarium of the Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur where a voucher specimen (No. RUBL 19764) is deposited.