The expectation was consistent with experimental results confirming the confinement of WGMs fields within a disk. Although FDTD simulation reveals that the geometrical Q factor can
reach >10(5), the maximum Q factor we observed was 2.5×10(3). This implies that the scattering and absorption losses must be suppressed in order to enhance the microdisk performance. Simulations show significant WGM field at the top/bottom surface of the disk and visible imperfections of the disk surface was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, and are expected to produce considerable surface scattering loss limiting the overall disk cavity Q factor. However, such nondirectional surface scattering allowed us to successfully detect WGMs from the top of the disk.”
“Monocytes are pivotal effector cells of the innate immune system that are vital for recognizing and eliminating invasive microbial pathogens. When microbial products bind PND-1186 chemical structure to pathogen-recognition receptors, monocytes are activated
and release a broad array of cytokines and defensins that orchestrate the host innate and adaptive immune responses. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) mediates human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) induction in response to Chlamydia pneumoniae in mononuclear cells. We showed that TLR4 is expressed in U937 P5091 cells and monocytes infected with viable microorganisms in a time-dependent fashion, while heat-inactivated microorganisms induced a lesser expression, albeit still significant, of TLR4 compared with viable organisms; flow cytometric analysis, in particular, revealed a higher level of TLR4 expression at 48 and 72 h postinfection. In addition, U937 cells and monocytes responded to C. pneumoniae
in a TLR4-dependent manner with induction of mRNA and protein of the antimicrobial peptide HBD-2. The treatment of cells with TLR4-neutralizing antibody resulted in a decrease in C. pneumoniae-induced HBD-2 production. This study reveals that TLRs not only recognize ligands but also the types of effector molecules induced, namely, antimicrobial peptides. An understanding of the importance of the TLR-mediated antimicrobial mechanisms may provide new avenues for the development of therapeutic regimens aimed at activating the body’s own defenses by stimulating TLR-dependent pathways.”
“We report on the observation and experimental studies of impurity Vorinostat cell line breakdown and terahertz luminescence in n-GaN epilayers under external electric field. The terahertz electroluminescence is observed in a wide range of doping levels (at noncompensated donor density from 4.5×10(16) to 3.4×10(18) cm(-3)). Spectra of terahertz luminescence and photoconductivity are studied by means of Fourier transform spectrometry. Distinctive features of the spectra can be assigned to intracenter electron transitions between excited and ground states of silicon and oxygen donors and to hot electron transitions to the donor states.