1% saponin in PBS overnight at 4 °C. After washing of the cells twice with 0.5% NGS/0.1% saponin in PBS they were incubated with secondary antibody goat anti-mouse IgG (H + L) (FITC) (1:50; cat #: ab6785-1; Abcam) in 1% NGS/0.1% saponin for 1 h at RT. The cells were washed and resuspended in 0.5% NGS/0.1% saponin in 1xPBS and FACS analysis was performed using a FACS Calibur (Becton Dickinson). Human Rapamycin order and rat 3D liver cultures or hepatocyte monolayer cultures were incubated for 1 to 15 days with various concentrations of different compounds (Table 1) in culture medium containing serum. The concentrations of the various test compounds
were chosen around the in vivo plasma concentration (Cmax) observed at pharmacological doses, ranging from about 10-fold below to 10-fold above the human Cmax. The treatment of human and rat 3D liver cells or hepatocytes www.selleckchem.com/products/abt-199.html with different compounds and the collection of the media was performed on a daily basis or every other day. The cytotoxicity of the tested drugs was assessed as the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) from cells into the media. The amount of viable and metabolically active cells was determined via quantitation of ATP using the CellTiter-Glo
luminescent cell viability assay (cat. # G7571; Promega) at the end of the drug-treatment periods. Cytotoxicity, cell viability and caspase 3/7 activation were in some experiments determined simultaneously using the ApoTox-Glo-triplex assay kit (cat. #: G6320; Promega). Cell toxicity and viability were detected based on measurement of dead-cell and live-cell protease
activities using fluorogenic cell-impermeant or cell-permeant peptide substrate respectively. The caspase 3/7 activity was measured by luminogenic buy Bortezomib substrate, which is cleaved by caspase 3/7. After isolation and expansion of rat and human NPC in monolayer culture cells were inoculated into two nylon scaffolds placed above a porous membrane of inserts of 24-well plates (Fig. 1A). Two days later microscopic examination was performed to check whether the NPC were attached and uniformly distributed over the scaffold. Hepatocytes were seeded later only if the cultures containing NPC uniformly covered the scaffold. One week after NPC were seeded hepatocytes were inoculated into the screens allowing interactions with the other cell types and ECM. Cells differentiated properly forming liver tissue consisting of 7–9 layers of cells (tissue thickness around 200 μm, Fig. 1A). The three-dimensionality of the scaffold provides increased surface area for cell growth and allows NPC and PC to form a microenvironment conducive to cellular proliferation, maturation and migration (Naughton et al., 1994 and Naughton et al., 1995). We performed for each 3D liver culture quality control including microscopic examination and quantitative functionality measurements.