Recently, in a retrospective analysis, Kang et al (27) showed th

Recently, in a retrospective analysis, Kang et al. (27) showed that the use of CT-based 3D BT resulted in a significant decrease of severe late rectal bleeding and in an improvement of LC for patients with tumor size >4 cm. In a retrospective series including 84 patients with primary locally

advanced cervical carcinoma, Haie-Meder et al. (28) suggest that applying individual treatment planning with 3D MRI-guided LDR BT is feasible and efficient in routine clinical practice and should become the standard modality of gynecologic BT. In 2006, A French prospective multicentric study STIC PDR (Programme de Soutien aux Techniques Innovantes Coûteuses Pulsed Dose Rate) was initiated for patients treated for

cervix carcinoma comparing a PDR BT method based on orthogonal x-rays (two-dimensional group) or based on 3D imaging (3D group). Their results in the 3D arm at 2 years (LC, locoregional control [LRC], and DFS) are relatively similar to ours at 5 years for the two groups of patients with surgery or not (29). For the group with surgery, 2-year LC was 93% vs. 5-year LC was 86.3%, 2-year LRC was 88.6% vs. 5-year LRC was 84%, and 2-year DFS was 77.1% vs. 5-year DFS was 68.3% in our series. For the group without surgery, 2-year LC was 78.5% vs. 5-year LC was 79.4%, 2-year LRC was 69.6% vs. 5-year LRC was 75%, and 2-year DFS was 60.3% vs. 5-year DFS was 60% in Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library our series. Preliminary dosimetric data are published for the first 637 patients: in the 3D arm, concerning the 267 patients treated after EBRT with or without complementary surgery, D100 HR CTV is 10.8 and 16.6 Gy; D90 HR CTV is 17.9 and 26.8 Gy (30), respectively. Our Clomifene retrospective study allows us to compare only the D100 HR CTV [cm3 [EQD2 (10)]. In the group with surgery, our D100 HR CTV was 15.8 Gy cm3 [EQD2 (10)] vs. 10.8 Gy cm3 [EQD2 (10)] (STIC PDR). In the group without surgery, our D100 HR CTV was quite

similar (16.85 Gy) cm3 [EQD2 (10)] vs. 16.6 Gy cm3 [EQD2 (10)] (STIC PDR) (30). In these two series, the D100 HR CTV cm3 [EQD2 (10)] was lower than GEC ESTRO recommendations (14). Dimopoulos et al. (26) obtained an increase in LC rates of 95% if the D90 biologically equivalent dose HR CTV was 87 Gy cm3 [EQD2 (10)] for patients without surgery. Treatment policy in our series was individually tailored according to disease characteristics and response to chemoradiation. Despite the low dose level delivered, the 5-year LC rate was comparable with traditional LDR BT studies (79.4% for patients without surgery) even if recent 3D series relate higher LC with generally more advanced tumors. As example, Pötter et al. (31) related 3-year LC rate of 95% for more advanced with 7.7% Grades 3–4 late complications. Haie-Meder et al. [28] and [31] reported a 2-year LC rate of 89.2% with low Grade 3 delayed toxicity (4.7%). Tan et al.

, 2001) These results, along with subsequent work by Truchet et

, 2001). These results, along with subsequent work by Truchet et al. (2004) showing induction of

IFN-γ target genes (irf-1 and socs-1) in 2-cell embryos after stimulation with exogenous IFN-γ, indicate there is a functional IFN-γ signaling pathway in mouse early embryos. Our results showing that Atlantic cod ifngr1 transcript is highly expressed in unfertilized eggs click here and 2-cell embryos supports the hypothesis that IFN-γ signaling in the very early embryo is conserved between mammals and teleost fish. IFRD1 (synonyms TIS7 and PC4) proteins are highly conserved transcriptional co-repressors (Vietor and Huber, 2007). Atlantic cod IFRD1 (i.e. the deduced translation of the nucleotide sequence with GenBank accession number ES775268) is over 80% identical to IFRD1 sequences from other teleost fish species such as the zebrafish, torafugu, Nile tilapia, and Atlantic salmon, and over 70% identical to IFRD1 sequences from mammals including the human, rat, and mouse (Supplemental Table 14, and data not shown). Mouse ifrd1 transcript is ubiquitously selleck expressed, with notably high expression

in fertilized eggs ( Su et al., 2002 and Vietor and Huber, 2007). In mammals, ifrd1 is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. For example, in early rat embryos, high ifrd1 transcript expression along the neural tube suggests that this gene is involved in embryonic neuroblast differentiation (reviewed by Vietor and Huber, 2007). In the embryonic mouse, ifrd1 transcript is expressed in several tissues including developing kidney, lung, and the central nervous system ( Buanne et al., 1998). While ifrd1 knockout mice are fertile, they have decreased adult body weight (possibly due to muscle atrophy), altered

muscle regeneration and function, and down-regulated muscle-specific genes ( Vadivelu et al., 2004; reviewed by Vietor and Huber, 2007). It is thought that IFRD1 may down-regulate β-catenin/Tcf-4 transcriptional activity in a histone clonidine deacetylase (HDAC)-dependent manner, and thereby inhibit β-catenin target genes (reviewed by Vietor and Huber, 2007). We demonstrate for the first time that ifrd1 is a highly expressed maternal transcript in a fish species. Apart from our results, and those of Su et al. (2002) showing high ifrd1 transcript expression in fertilized mouse eggs (reviewed in Vietor and Huber, 2007), information is lacking on the expression and potential function of IFRD1 in vertebrate eggs and very early embryos.

PIT dependency was not clear For biofilms of C dubliniensis, th

PIT dependency was not clear. For biofilms of C. dubliniensis, the analysis of variance showed significant interaction of PIT and Cur concentration (p = 0.001) 17-AAG supplier in the P+L+ groups irradiated for 4 min. On the other hand, the interaction was not significant in the P+L+ groups irradiated for

8 min, with a significant effect of PIT (p < 0.001) and Cur concentration (p < 0.001). Tukey's test was applied to study the cases, and the results are presented in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. The groups illuminated for 4 min were concentration-dependent for the extreme values (40 and 20 μM). No PIT dependency was clearly observed. Whereas, groups illuminated for 8 min were concentration and PIT-dependent. For all the microorganisms, CSLM was used to investigate Cur penetration into the deepness of the biofilms. Images of Candida spp. biofilms were captured by fluorescence mode ( Fig. 7 and Fig. 8) following incubation of the biofilms with Cur 40 μM for 5 min ( Fig. 7A, C and E) and 20 min (Figs. 7B, D, F and 8). In spite of the light green fluorescence observed after a 5-min incubation ( Fig. 7A, C and E), brighter fluorescence was observed following a 20-min incubation ( Fig. 7B, D and F). Fig. 8 presents cross sections and side views of C. albicans biofilms

after 5 and 20 min of incubation with Cur 40 μM ( Fig. 8B and C, respectively). Fig. 8A presents an image of the transmittance mode applied to C. albicans biofilm before the incubation with curcumin, due to the absence of fluorescence GSK1120212 signal from Candida biofilms without curcumin. On the side views of the same biofilm ( Fig. 8B and C), it is possible to determine the biofilm thickness (yellow lines) and curcumin penetration through the biofilm (red lines). Moreover, it is possible to observe the lack of sensitised cells in the deepest portions (yellow arrow) when compared to the outermost layers with a brighter fluorescence (red arrow). Among other factors, the effectiveness of antimicrobial PDT depends on the pre-irradiation time (PIT), which is the period required by the PS to remain in contact with the microorganisms before illumination. It seems that the PIT

sufficient to promote effective microbial killing depends on the properties of the PS. For example, the porphyrins, the phenothiazine and the aluminium phthalocyanine (AlPc)26, 34 and 35 require shorter PITs when compared with tetrasulfonated PDK4 aluminium phthalocyanine (AlPcS4).35 In contrast, other studies have stated that PIT had no significant importance on the effectiveness of PDT, and demonstrated that a longer PIT did not increase the reduction in cell viability.26, 33 and 34 In addition, the species of the microorganism studied is an important factor influencing PDT effectiveness.39, 45 and 51 Due to the vast diversity of microorganisms, a PS with distinct physicochemical properties may be required. For these reasons, different types of PS have been proposed for antimicrobial PDT.

Two new channels, leading to more efficient water exchange betwee

Two new channels, leading to more efficient water exchange between the inner lagoon and the outer sea, will be formed according to the projection results. Compared to Scenario 1, an increase in storm frequency has conspicuous effects on coastline change, which are shown in the projection Nivolumab manufacturer result of Scenario 2 (Figure 10). Erosion of the coastline is stronger than in Scenario 1 with about 35% more changes on average. The maximum increased retreats on the Darss and the Zingst coastlines are 97 m and 190 m respectively. In contrast to the stronger erosion on most parts of the coast, the growth of the headland

and the Bock area is further developed in Scenario 2 compared to Scenario 1. An increased extension of 150 m of the headland compared to Scenario 1 is predicted in Scenario 2. Such growth is induced by the increased frequency of storms, especially from the west, which scour large amounts of sediment offshore from the shoreline area; these sediments are then gradually transported towards the headland by longshore currents. The increased sedimentation in the Bock area is a combination of storm effects from different

directions (westerly and easterly). The westerly storms induce more deposition in the offshore area by erosion on the Hiddensee coastline, whereas the easterly ones are mainly responsible for erosion on the Zingst coastline, which buy Anti-infection Compound Library provide additional sediment sources for the Bock area. Four new channels are created in Scenario Farnesyltransferase 2, two of which are on the Darss coast, one on the Zingst coast and one on Hiddensee. These channels play a

key role in changing the hydrodynamics and turning the inner lagoon system into an open environment that is more vulnerable to storm attack. The effects of accelerated sea level rise (3 mm year−1) on the coastline change are reflected in Scenario 3 (Figure 10). The coastline change caused by such an accelerated sea level rise is even more remarkable than that due merely to increased storm frequency (Scenario 2). Although the coastline of the whole area is facing more changes under the effects of accelerated sea level rise, different parts of the area respond differently. The coastline change on Darss in Scenario 3 is similar to Scenario 2, with an average increased retreat of 45 m compared to Scenario 2. The differences between these two scenarios become distinctive in the headland and the Zingst area. The projected headland in Scenario 3 is much narrower than in Scenarios 1 and 2, even though it is still growing. An increased retreat of about 150 m in the western part and about 165 m in the eastern part of the headland (compared to Scenario 2) is projected in Scenario 3. The ‘thinning’ of the headland is caused mainly by the effects of accelerated sea level rise.

, 2005) (n = 100) studied repairable non-traumatic full-thickness

, 2005) (n = 100) studied repairable non-traumatic full-thickness Bateman types 1 or 3 tears of the rotator cuff (i.e.1–5 cm). In this trial, an open RCR with non-absorbable braided No.3 Ethibond using modified Mason Allen sutures was compared to an open RCR with 1.0 mm absorbable polydioxane cord using modified Kessler sutures. No significant differences were found on the outcome rated as ‘good or excellent’ at 2-years follow-up. Also, no differences were found between the groups for re-tear of the rotator cuff on sonography and the Constant score >75. Another low-quality study (Gartsman and O’Connor, 2004) (n = 93) studied arthroscopic RCR with and without subacromial decompression

selleck products with an isolated repairable or a full-thickness supraspinatus tear. No differences between the groups on the American Shoulder and Elbow Score (ASES) were found at 12-months follow-up. Eight recent RCTs on surgery were found. A high-quality study (Milano et al., 2007) (n = 80) studied arthroscopic RCR with and without subacromial decompression. Similar to the results reported by Gartsman and O’Connor (2004), no significant differences between the groups were reported on the Constant score or the DASH score at 2-years follow-up. Another high-quality study (Mohtadi et al.,

2008) compared open to arthroscopic Regorafenib molecular weight acromioplasty with mini-open RCR in 62 patients with a full-thickness RotCuffTear. No significant differences between the groups were found at 3 and 6-months and 1 and 2-years follow-up on the ASES score, the Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ), or the Rotator Cuff-Quality of Life (RC-QOL) measure. A low-quality study (Grasso et al., 2009) studied Oxaprozin the effectiveness of arthroscopic full-thickness RCR with single-row versus double-row anchors in 80 patients. At follow-up (24.8 (1.4) mean (sd) months) no significant differences between the groups were found on the Constant Score, strength or the DASH. Another low-quality study (Franceschi

et al., 2007) (n = 60) also compared the effectiveness of arthroscopic single-row to double-row suture anchor repair of a full-thickness RotCuffTear. At 2-years follow-up no significant differences on the UCLA scores, rates of healing or MRI arthrography were found. A third high-quality study (Burks et al., 2009) (n = 40) that compared the effectiveness of single-row versus double-row anchors in full-thickness arthroscopic RCR did not find significant results between the groups either on the Constant Score, ASES, UCLA and strength 1 year after surgery. A high-quality study (Bigoni et al., 2009) (n = 50) studied side-to-side with permanent sutures (SS) versus tendon-to-bone fixation with 1 metal suture anchor loaded with double sutures (TB) in arthroscopic full-thickness supraspinatus tear repair. From the study it is not clear whether or not significant results on the Constant score and internal and external rotator peak torque were found at 3- and 6-months follow up.

5%, 10 0%, and 12 5%, respectively, in the 40–80 cm soil layer T

5%, 10.0%, and 12.5%, respectively, in the 40–80 cm soil layer. The percentages of root dry weights also decreased in the 20–40 cm soil layers. Based on the comparisons among different treatments, the maximum value for root dry weight was found in the 0–10 cm soil layer under the CK treatment at the 12th leaf and early filling stages, 10.6–31.2% greater than those under the T1 and T2 treatments. Significant

differences were observed among the three treatments. For the soil layers in the three treatments, the deeper the subsoiled layer, the lower was the root dry weight; however, the root dry weight in CK treatment began to be significantly lower than those under the T1 and T2 treatments in the 30-cm soil layer. No significant differences were found between the root dry weight in the 0–40 cm soil layer under the T1 and T2 treatments, though that under the T1 treatment was slightly higher than that under the T2 Bleomycin ic50 treatment. The maximum root dry weight was identified OSI-906 in the 40–80 cm soil layer under the T2 treatment, and was 15.2% and 20.9% higher than those under the T1 treatment at the 12th leaf stage and early filling stages,

respectively. There were significant differences between treatments at the early filling stage (Table S1). Root diameter is an important root morphological parameter and reflects soil influence on the root system. The maximum root diameter under the three treatments was found in the 0–10 cm layer (Fig. 5). The root diameter decreased with increasing soil depth. ADAMTS5 In the top soil layer, the maximum root diameter was found under the CK treatment; in the soil below 20 cm, the maximum value was found under

the T2 treatment; at the 12-leaf stage, the variations among root diameters in the 0–80 cm soil layer under the CK, T1 and T2 treatments were 23.7%, 13.8%, and 10.0%, respectively. At the early filling stage, the variations were slightly higher, with values of 28.4%, 16.9%, and 11.3% for the CK, T1, and T2 treatments. The smallest variation was found under subsoiling to 50 cm, suggesting that subsoiling efficiently breaks up the plow pan, reduces soil resistance to root penetration into deeper soil layers, and promotes root downward growth and uptake of water and nutrients in deeper soil. Significant differences in soil compaction in different soil layers across different subsoiling treatments were found (Table 4). Under the CK treatment, lower compaction was found in the 0–10 cm soil layer, but soil compaction significantly decreased in the 10–20 cm soil layer; under the T1 treatment, lower compaction was found in the 0–20 cm soil layer and the soil compaction began to increase significantly below the 30 cm soil layer. Under the T2 treatment, soil compaction gradually increased with soil depth and remained stable to the 40–50 cm soil layer.

The wet weight (WW) of R harrisii inhabiting the Gulf of Gdańsk

The wet weight (WW) of R. harrisii inhabiting the Gulf of Gdańsk was sexually dimorphic and differed significantly between the sexes; this has been shown for other crab species ( Fransozo et al. 2003, Czerniejewski & Wawrzyniak 2006, Pinheiro & Hattori 2006). According to Fransozo et al. (2003), this could be due to a difference in energy allocation resulting from reproductive differences (i.e. females cannot attain the larger sizes or heavier weights of males owing to the larger energy requirements of egg

production). In some crab species, this weight difference is due to the males’ positive allometric growth of chelipeds ( Pinheiro selleck chemical & Hattori 2006). According to Turoboyski (1973), R. harrisii male claw weight accounts for up to 64.0% of the total body weight, whereas female claws contribute only 11.1 to 28.0% to the total body weight. This may also explain why males of R. harrisii were heavier than females of the same carapace width. However, a few individual females were outliers and exhibited either higher or lower wet weights in regard to the power function fitted to the empirical points of this CW: WW relationship. A greater wet weight might be observed prior to the female laying eggs when the gonads

are heavy; a lower wet weight could indicate that the female had already produced an egg mass and the eggs had hatched. Moreover, individual variation Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase in wet weight could also be influenced by differential stomach fullness. According to Le Cren (1951), the condition factor can provide important information about the ‘well-being’ of a species and can indicate such aspects as recent feeding conditions and the degree of adjustment to the environment. Based on the condition factor, R. harrisii females from Gulf of Gdańsk are in better condition than males even though the males in this population grow faster than females of the same carapace width as a consequence of isometric

weight gain. While most studies show a higher condition factor for males ( Emmanuel 2008, Mohapatra et al. 2010, Patil & Patil 2012), the condition factor is known to be species-specific and can also vary between populations with female gonadal development and time of year ( Branco & Masunari 2000, Pinheiro & Fiscarelli 2009). Some crustacean females increase the weight/volume of the hepatopancreas, the gland responsible for the storage and transport of energy reserves to the ovaries during vitellogenesis ( Hæfner & Spaargaren 1993). Therefore, in some crab populations like swimming crabs (Callinectes danae, Dilocarcinus pagei) or West African blue crabs (Callinectes pallidus), the condition factor for females was higher than males ( Branco & Masunari 2000, Pinheiro & Taddei 2005, Oluwatoyin et al. 2013). R.

A three-way interaction between gender, genotype and sciatic neur

A three-way interaction between gender, genotype and sciatic neurectomy was only detected for medullary area. The post-hoc analysis showed that female Lrp5HBM+ mice experienced less endocortical expansion than female WTHBM− mice (medullary area:

6.3 ± 3.8% vs. 16.4 ± 2.2% respectively, p < 0.05), no other differences were detected between male Lrp5HBM+ and their WTHBM− littermates or between male and female Lrp5−/− mice and their WT+/+ littermates. In cancellous bone, gender had a significant effect on the magnitude of sciatic neurectomy-induced change in Tb.Th and Tb.N, but not BV/TV or Tb.Sp, with male mice losing slightly more Tb.Th (− 20.2% vs. − 16.7%, respectively, p < 0.05, data not shown) and females losing more Tb.N (− 24.9% vs. − 22.9%, respectively, p < 0.05, data not shown). Genotype also had a significant effect on see more the magnitude of loss on all parameters of cancellous bone. Lrp5HBM+ mice experienced less loss in BV/TV than their WTHBM− littermates (− 17.2% vs. − 43.3%, respectively, p < 0.05, data not shown). This could be attributed to a reduced loss in Tb.Th and Tb.N. In contrast, Lrp5−/− mice showed a greater loss in BV/TV than their WT+/+ littermates (− 52.4% vs. − 41.3% respectively, p < 0.05, data not shown) due to a greater reduction in Tb.N and increase in Tb.Sp. A three-way interaction between gender, genotype and selleck products sciatic neurectomy was not detected for any of the cancellous

bone parameters; therefore bone loss was similar in male and female mice within each genotype. The trabecular architecture in the control and sciatic neurectomised limbs of the eight groups of mice are illustrated in Fig. 2. In summary these findings show that the degree of cortical and cancellous bone loss associated with sciatic neurectomy is affected by Lrp5 status.

The presence of the Lrp5 HBM mutation is associated with less loss in cortical and cancellous bone than in their WTHBM− controls. The lack of difference in cortical bone loss with disuse between Lrp5−/− mice and their WT+/+ controls indicates that normal Lrp5 function has no effect on this process. However, in cancellous bone absence of Lrp5 is associated with a greater decrease in Tb.N and increase in Tb.Sp than in WT+/+ controls. Mechanical loading significantly and dose-responsively second increased the cortical bone parameters, % cortical bone area and % total area in WT+/+ males, but Lrp5−/− males showed a complete absence of cortical bone responses ( Table 2, Fig. 3). Female WT+/+ mice failed to respond dose-responsively to loading for cortical bone parameters ( Table 3), but some of the individual load groups produced significant side-to-side loading effects for cortical variables ( Table 2). Like their WT counterparts, Lrp5−/− females showed no dose–response to loading in cortical parameters, but significant side-to-side loading effects for some cortical bone parameters were found ( Table 2 Fig. 3).

PBS was added in replacement for the withdrawal of supernatant an

PBS was added in replacement for the withdrawal of supernatant and distilled water was added 1:10 to lyse the red blood cells followed by incubation for 10 min maximum at room temperature. The tubes were spun at 2000 g for 10 min

and the supernatants removed. The pellet was resuspended in 1 mL PBS and a few glass beads were added to help disperse the pellet. The samples were then measured in the luminometer (Berthold AutoLumat Plus, Berthold Technologies, Germany) by diluting 1:10 in PBS and using 1% N-decyl aldehyde (Sigma-Aldrich, US) as the substrate. Mycobacterial luminescence was measured at baseline and at 96 h, and the growth ratio was calculated by division of the mean 96-hour luminescence value by the mean baseline value. The control samples were processed in the same way excluding the centrifugation step for removal of supernatant see more and lysis of red blood cells, as these are irrelevant for bacteria growing in growth medium alone. Growth ratios Ibrutinib were calculated and compared between different volumes of growth media, equivalent to the equation used for whole blood assays. A mean of the triplicate growth ratios

was calculated for each sample per blood/control volume. A cross sectional comparison of the median growth ratio for all data available at each volume was compared using the non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis test. Analysis including only samples with repeated measures for each volume was carried out using Friedmann ANOVA Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II test. In addition separate comparisons between each volume were analysed using Mann Whitney paired non-parametric tests. In all cases p ≤ 0.05 was termed significant. Repeated results were obtained from 9 healthy adults. Initial studies that verified the methods were performed using the original volume of blood and therefore there are more values at the 1 mL volume than at the smaller volumes. These data points were included in the initial analysis. There was no significant difference between the median

growth ratios for each of the volumes of diluted blood (Fig. 1A, p = 0.160) showing a 2-fold reduction in volume is possible in this assay system. Examining the data that included samples that had all three different volume measurements, we found that there were no significant differences between any of the volumes (Fig. 1B, p = 0.398). Additional analysis comparing each volume of blood with the original volume of 1 mL also showed no significant differences between each of the volumes tested (Fig. 1B). There were no significant differences between the different volumes of growth media for the growth of BCG (data not shown). It was also established that using polystyrene round bottom tubes with snap caps (BD Biosciences) instead of 5 mL bijous for the incubation reduced the risk of disrupting the pellet while collecting the supernatants without any changes to the resulting mycobacterial growth (data not shown).

For clinical trials, the patterns of data obtained for urine gluc

For clinical trials, the patterns of data obtained for urine glucose from each chip was well correlated with those of glucose in blood collected

from the same patients suggesting that our developed system may be able to be used in monitoring glucose levels in urine continuously while being able to give some indication of changes in the level of glucose in the blood. This study was supported by research fund from Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy in our country (Grant no. 10032112 and 10045220). The authors wish to thank Dr. Moon Seok Park in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital for collection of blood and urine samples. “
“Maize starch is one of the most valuable ingredients in the production of food, comprising more than 80% of the starch market worldwide [1]. However, their application is actually limited due to their poor functional physicochemical properties RG7422 nmr that result in a lack of cold water solubility (CWS) and low viscosity. These physicochemical properties of maize starch are affected by its structure, such as the relative crystallinity, ratio of amylose to amylopectin, surface morphology, and granular particle diameter [2], [3] and [4]. Proper processing of starches is required to alter their structural status. Conventional treatments involve heating the starches

in slurry. However, this method causes gelatinization, which seriously influences their application due to the resultant starches becoming grainy and PD-1 antibody inhibitor poor tasting. Therefore, novel techniques for preparing granular cold water soluble starches is thought to be one of the best ways for expanding the industrial application of modified starches. To date, several technologies have been developed

for Megestrol Acetate producing cold water soluble (CWS) starches that retain their granular integrity, such as heating starches in aqueous, high temperature and pressure conditions, and alcoholic–alkaline treatments [5], [6] and [7], each exhibiting variable levels of efficacy. Ball-milling refers to the use of friction, collision, impingement, shear, or other mechanical actions to modify the structure and properties of starch granules [8]. Treatment of starch using ball-milling is low cost and environmental friendly. As a physical method of modification, ball-milling has been used to effectively decrease the relative crystallinity and increase the solubility and digestibility of starch. However, there is currently no published information available on the effect of ball-milling on the physicochemical properties of maize starch. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of processing maize starch with ball-milling treatment on the CWS, crystal structure, granule shape, transparency, and freeze–thaw stability of maize starch. These studies provide a theoretical basis for the industrial production of granular CWS starch.