01, p = 0 14) These results are in agreement with a previous rep

01, p = 0.14). These results are in agreement with a previous report by Ringach et al. (2002)

observing only minimal differences in tuning strength across cortical layers, but a high diversity of tuning width and spontaneous firing in all layers (see also Schiller et al., 1976). Analysis of the reliability of neuronal responses, or Fano factor, yielded similar C59 wnt cost results across layers, with only a slight tendency for neurons in the granular layer to exhibit decreased values (p > 0.1, Wilcoxon sign-ranked test). Altogether, these analyses argue that the shape of orientation tuning curves and response reliability cannot explain the laminar dependence of noise correlations. Figure 4A shows the laminar distribution of correlations—whereas correlation coefficients in supragranular and infragranular layers are skewed toward high values, those in the granular layer

have much lower values. Based on our CSD-defined laminar regions, we were able to record from pairs of cells in a given layer up to 400 μm away, and hence investigated the effect of distance between laminar contacts on correlated variability. By computing the number of cell pairs as a function of electrode contact distance across layers, we found that ∼78% of cell pairs were within 200 μm (Figure 4B). In addition, the mean correlation coefficient did not depend on contact distance irrespective of cortical layer (Figure 4C; p > 0.45; Wilcoxon rank sum test). We also calculated noise correlations for neuron pairs originating RO4929097 chemical structure from different layers and found

that correlations between neurons in the granular layer and those in other cortical layers (SG-G: 0.12 ± 0.03; IG-G: 0.10 ± 0.03) were significantly weaker. When we computed correlations between neurons in supragranular and infragranular layers we observed significantly those higher values (SG-IG: 0.21 ± 0.03; one-way ANOVA, F (2, 156) = 12.73, p = 10−5; post hoc multicomparison, Tukey’s least significant difference). This result is consistent with our hypothesis that there is a greater fraction of common input in the output layers possibly due to the influence of long-range horizontal connections (see Figure S2 for a summary of interlayer rSC). One possible confound is eye movements during fixation. Indeed, eye movements could modulate the firing rates of all the neurons recorded simultaneously to possibly increase correlated variability due to an increase in common input. Although the eye movement modulation of firing rates has not been demonstrated to depend on cortical layer, one cannot totally exclude the possibility that this modulation could be larger in supragranular and infragranular layers of V1 to contribute to an increase in noise correlations. However, if eye movements were a confounding variable in our study, they would equally affect correlations in all layers.

, 2009), despite the decreased signal-to-noise ratio in the brain

, 2009), despite the decreased signal-to-noise ratio in the brainstem resulting from the effects of cardiac pulsation and respiratory movement. The response is unlikely to be an artifact of motion attributable to increased physiological arousal as the BOLD effect observed is decreasing with increasing uncertainty. While previous studies have demonstrated sensitivity of neuronal responses in locus coeruleus to unexpected changes in reward contingencies in rats and nonhuman primates (Aston-Jones et al., 1997 and Bouret and Sara, 2004) and have Everolimus cell line attributed phasic

changes in pupil diameter in human subjects correlating with unexpected uncertainty to the action of locus coeruleus (Nassar et al., 2012 and Preuschoff et al., 2011), this finding

represents neural evidence in humans for the claim that brain regions containing noradrenergic neurons are involved in the representation of Venetoclax purchase unexpected uncertainty (Yu and Dayan, 2005). The neurophysiological literature (Aston-Jones et al., 1999 and Bouret and Sara, 2005) has noted a distinction between the phasic and tonic modes of LC activity. While the phasic mode has been associated with enhanced task engagement and performance, the tonic mode has been associated with increased distractibility, the shifting of attention, and exploratory behavior (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005, Aston-Jones et al., 1994 and Rajkowski et al., 1992). In addition, shifts from phasic to tonic LC mode have been noted during contingency changes in a target reversal task with nonhuman primates (Aston-Jones et al., 1997). In our task, MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit however, a contingency change may not precipitate the shifting of attention to previously irrelevant

task stimuli or engagement in exploratory behavior, as may be the case in a target-reversal paradigm; rather it is possible that the contingency change signaled by high unexpected uncertainty brings about increased engagement with the outcome stimuli for the purpose of learning and thus recruitment of phasic LC mode, characterized by both relatively low baseline firing rate and high phasic responsiveness to task-relevant stimuli. Given that our BOLD signal appears to be more sensitive to baseline activity as opposed to phasic responsiveness, this effect could potentially manifest in the sustained decrease in BOLD signal that we observe under conditions of high unexpected uncertainty. Further investigation is required, however, to fully characterize how switching of LC mode relates to task demands and how it may influence the BOLD signal. Another key question for future research lies in determining which, if any, of the cortical representations of unexpected uncertainty observed here are dependent on efferent projection from locus coeruleus.

The authors showed that administering TNF-alpha as an adjuvant to

The authors showed that administering TNF-alpha as an adjuvant to doxorubicin treatment increased apoptotic cell death in the

presence of low-levels of DNA damage by using an integrated network approach. Without pathway and network-level information, this non-intuitive relationship may have been missed. Network interpretation has already added depth to non-intuitive instances of drug resistance. Recently, Wilson et al. showed Dolutegravir molecular weight that growth-factors within the tumor microenvironment may increase resistance to kinase inhibitor therapy [22]. While this might seem counterintuitive in a linear-process formalism, considering the cell’s underlying signaling network make these results less surprising. Wagner et al. used network inference methods to create interaction networks by combining systematic RNAi-perturbation data with phosphorylation information at multiple time points for six receptor-tyrosine kinases (RTKs) (EGFR, FGFR1,c-Met,IGF-1R,NTRK2, and PDGFRβ) [23]. From the resulting networks, they clustered each RTK network, identifying core signaling components shared between all RTKs as well as cluster-specific modules. They postulated that modules shared between RTKs within the same cluster could explain resistance to targeted RTK therapy. More specifically, if RTKs

of a particular class shared DNA Damage inhibitor signaling components and affected the same downstream phenotypes, then these within-cluster RTKs could compensate

for chemical inhibition by actuating the original downstream phenotype [23]. They demonstrated this compensation within the EGFR/c-Met/FGFR1 cluster by showing correlation of receptor expression with resistance to therapies targeted to other within-cluster RTKs. A meta-analysis of nine RNAi screens for HIV-replication factors used functional enrichment to explain discrepancies across and high-scoring targets from each screen [24]. When they investigated the percentage of scoring targets across three screens, this overlap only included a modest 3-6% of gene targets. They show that variability between screens, variability between experimental timing and toxicity thresholds all contributed to the minimal overlap among these screens. However, when they looked at gene membership in GO ontology categories, they found much greater overlap in the enrichment of GO categories across screens than in the individual gene targets. This finding indicates that a more global, functional filter is useful for identifying true positives from highly variable RNAi screens. Additionally, using functional pathway membership increased experimental validation rates in an RNAi screen for DNA-damage mediators [25]. The authors screened all protein-coding genes in Drosophila melanogaster and compared top hits to an analogous screen in Saccharomyces cervisiae, but did not see a statistically significant overlap between screening targets [25].

We used siRNAs to deplete endogenous p150Glued, and achieved 60%

We used siRNAs to deplete endogenous p150Glued, and achieved 60% knockdown as compared to neurons treated with scrambled control siRNAs (Figures S1A–S1C). Depletion of p150Glued did not significantly disrupt neurite outgrowth, selleckchem similar

to knockdown of dynein (He et al., 2005), likely due to the gradual loss of the target proteins. We used LAMP1-RFP to monitor lysosome dynamics in DRG processes, which have a uniform MT polarity with plus ends oriented distally as assessed by EB3 imaging (Figure S1D). Quantitative analysis indicated that the motility of LAMP1-RFP-labeled organelles was not different from that of organelles labeled with LysoTracker (data not shown). Depletion of p150Glued resulted in a significant decrease in the motility of both anterograde and retrograde cargos, with a corresponding increase in the non-motile fraction compared to scrambled siRNA-treated neurons (Figures 1D and 1E). These data show that the p150Glued subunit of the dynein-dynactin complex is necessary

for the bidirectional motility of lysosomes along the axon, consistent with previous studies demonstrating the reciprocal dependence of dynein and kinesin motors (Hendricks et al., 2010, Martin et al., 1999 and Waterman-Storer et al., 1997). Next, we asked if expression of p150Glued lacking the CAP-Gly domain, ΔCAP-Gly, could rescue the arrest in motility caused by the knockdown of endogenous p150Glued, as compared to rescue with the full-length protein. We used a bicistronic vector to simultaneously and independently express both siRNA-resistant p150Glued Talazoparib and GFP, a transfection marker. Expression of either wild-type or ΔCAP-Gly p150Glued fully

rescued the disruption in motility caused by the knockdown of p150Glued. No significant differences in the fraction of anterograde, retrograde or nonmotile events were observed among the scrambled control, wild-type, and ΔCAP-Gly rescue experiments (Figures 1D and 1E; Movie S2). Analysis of individual tracks from the kymographs showed no difference in mean instantaneous velocities in either the anterograde or retrograde direction between wild-type and ΔCAP-Gly-expressing neurons, nor did we Mephenoxalone observe a significant difference in the number of pauses per track or the number of motility switches per track (Figures S1E–S1G). Additionally, we observed no change in the total number, apparent size or distribution of the lysosomes in the axon. Together, our data demonstrate that while dynactin is required, the CAP-Gly domain of p150Glued is not necessary for processive motility along the axon in primary neurons. Since the CAP-Gly domain of p150Glued does not contribute to the processive motility of cargos along the axon, we investigated other possible functions of the domain. In fungi, dynein and dynactin are enriched at hyphal tips (Lenz et al., 2006).

(2012) GCaMP5 signals were imaged using two-photon microscopy A

(2012). GCaMP5 signals were imaged using two-photon microscopy. Adult flies were fixed to a piece of aluminum foil secured to a perfusion chamber (P-1, Harvard Technologies) using dental floss and an Electra Waxer (Almore International). Cuticle, trachea,

and fat bodies obscuring the mushroom body were removed and the exposed brain was superfused with saline (5 mM TES, 103 mM NaCl, 3 mM KCl, 1.5 mM CaCl2, 4 mM MgCl2, 26 mM NaHCO3, 1 mM NaH2PO4, 8 mM trehalose, 10 mM glucose [pH 7.3], bubbled with 95% oxygen, 5% carbon dioxide) using a perfusion pump (Watson-Marlow). Fluorescence was excited using 140 fs pulses centered on 910 nm generated by a Ti-sapphire laser (Chameleon Ultra II, Coherent), attenuated by a Pockels cell (Conoptics 302RM). Brains were imaged using Selleck BIBF1120 a Movable Objective Microscope (Sutter) with a Zeiss 20×, 1.0 NA W-Plan-Apochromat objective. Emitted photons were separated

from excitation light by a series of dichromatic mirrors and dielectric and colored glass filters and detected by GaAsP photomultiplier tubes (Hamamatsu Photonics H10770PA-40 SEL). Photomultiplier currents were amplified (Laser Components HCA-4M-500K-C) and passed through a custom-designed integrator circuit to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. The microscope was controlled through MPScope 2.0 (Nguyen et al., 2006) via a PCI-6110 Lapatinib DAQ board (National Instruments). Odor stimuli were delivered by switching mass-flow-controlled carrier and stimulus streams (CMOSense Performance

Line, Sensirion) via software-controlled solenoid valves (The Lee Company). Flow rates at the exit port of the odor tube were 0.5 l/min. Images were converted to Analyze format and motion corrected by maximizing the pixel-by-pixel correlation between each frame and a reference frame. ΔF/F traces were calculated in ImageJ using manually drawn regions of interest (ROIs) for the background and brain structure of interest. Activity maps were generated in MATLAB from Gaussian-smoothed, background-subtracted images. A baseline fluorescence image was calculated as the average over a 10 s prestimulus interval. Minor z direction movement was ignored by correlating each frame to the baseline fluorescence and discarding it if the correlation fell below a threshold value. This threshold value was manually selected for each brain by noting the constant high correlation value STK38 when the brain was stationary and sudden drops in correlation when the brain moved. For each pixel, the difference between mean intensity during the stimulus and the mean baseline fluorescence (ΔF) was calculated. The ΔF during the presentation of a dummy stimulus (no odor) was subtracted to control for mechanical artifacts from the odor delivery system. If ΔF was less than two times the SD of the intensity of that pixel during the prestimulus interval, that pixel was considered unresponsive. We thank David Owald, Daryl Gohl, Marion Sillies, Tom Clandinin, and Ulrike Heberlein for flies.

Interrogation of SCAANT1 expression levels revealed an opposite p

Interrogation of SCAANT1 expression levels revealed an opposite pattern, as SCAANT1 was much higher in the lung and kidney than in cortex, cerebellum, striatum, or liver (Figure 4B). As the presence of the CAG repeat expansion

decreased SCAANT1 promoter activity in our luciferase reporter assays (Figure 2), we tested if the diametrically opposed expression of ataxin-7 sense transcript and SCAANT1 might occur in the selleck chemical context of SCA7 disease. To test this hypothesis, we performed RT-PCR analysis of a SCA7 patient fibroblast cell line, and while we could amplify both the normal and expanded repeat alleles for the ataxin-7 sense transcript, we could not detect antisense SCAANT1 transcript expression from the expanded 55Q allele (Figure 4C).

We then performed quantitative RT-PCR analysis of ataxin-7 sense expression on fibroblasts obtained from two SCA7 patients, one with a moderately sized disease repeat (55Q), and one with a severely expanded repeat (150Q). With increasing expansion size, we observed significantly increased ataxin-7 sense transcript levels (Figure 4D), indicating that expansion of the CAG repeat at the ataxin-7 locus yields increased levels of ataxin-7 transcript in association with reduced expression of SCAANT1. We also obtained a set of peripheral blood samples from three additional SCA7 patients, isolated RNA from their lymphocytes, and performed RT-PCR analysis. Antisense SCAANT1 transcript expression could not Autophagy activator be detected from the expanded allele

of the SCA7 samples, and all three SCA7 patients exhibited significantly increased ataxin-7 sense transcript levels (Figure 4E). As mutation of the 3′ CTCF binding site reduced the activity of the SCAANT1 promoter while derepressing ataxin-7 Urease sense expression from promoter P2A, we hypothesized that CTCF modulates ataxin-7 sense expression from this promoter by driving the expression of SCAANT1. To test this hypothesis, we validated two different CTCF shRNAs and derived a dual CTCF knockdown vector. After subcloning the CTCF dual shRNA knockdown fragment into a lentiviral construct with a linked eGFP expression cassette, we infected human Y-79 retinoblastoma cells and isolated RNA from flow-sorted GFP-positive Y-79 cells. Real-time RT-PCR analysis confirmed CTCF knockdown, and revealed a significant reduction in the expression level of SCAANT1 (Figure 5A). Significant reduction in SCAANT1 expression was accompanied by a marked increase in the ataxin-7 sense transcript from the P2A promoter, but not from the previously defined “standard” ataxin-7 sense promoter, located >40 kb 5′ to the repeat region (Figure 5A). Although direct, physiological comparison of the standard P1 promoter and P2A promoter is complicated by the coexistence of SCAANT1 transcription, analysis of ataxin-7 alternative sense and standard sense expression at baseline in Y-79 cells revealed only modestly (i.e., ∼2.

These studies left no doubt that the human cerebral cortex has ex

These studies left no doubt that the human cerebral cortex has expanded significantly relative to other hominids, including introduction

of new regions in the frontal and parietotemporal lobes Galunisertib concentration in humans (Dunbar, 1993, Fjell et al., 2013, Preuss, 1995, Rakic, 2009 and Teffer and Semendeferi, 2012). It also became evident that although the basic principles of brain development in all mammals may be conserved, the modifications of developmental events during evolution produce not only quantitative but qualitative changes as well (Table 1). Due to the limits of the space, we cannot provide a comprehensive review of this wide-ranging topic. Instead, we will focus on the expansion and elaboration of the human cerebral neocortex and provide our own personal perspective on some of the key advances in this area, including the high promise, as well as enormous challenges ahead. We organize our thoughts into two major areas—the phenotype-driven and genome-driven approaches,

which, unfortunately, only rarely meet in the middle. Our hope is that in the near future, it will be possible to connect some of the known human genetic adaptations to the developmental and maturational features that GSK J4 datasheet underlie uniquely human cognitive abilities. It is well established that the expansion of the cortex occurs primarily in surface area rather than in thickness. This is most pronounced in anthropoid primates, including humans, in which the neocortex comprises up to 80% of the brain mass. We have also known for a long time that the neocortex is subdivided into distinct cytoarchitectonic areas with neurons organized in horizontal layers or laminae, and vertical (radial) columns through or modules, which have increased in

number, size, and complexity during cortical evolution (Mountcastle, 1995 and Goldman-Rakic, 1987). Of course, brain size is not simply a matter of cell number; it also reflects cell density arrangements and connectivity (Herculano-Houzel et al., 2008), which is relevant here, as the distance between cell bodies in the cerebral cortex, especially prefrontal regions of humans, is greater than in other primates (Semendeferi et al., 2011). Thus, three essential features account for the changes in cerebral size over mammalian evolution: large changes in cell number, morphology, and composition. However, it is not sufficient to enlarge the entire brain, as Neanderthals had large brains, and modern human brain size may differ by 2-fold among individuals. From this perspective, many genes that modify cell cycle can increase or decrease brain size but not necessarily in a manner that is relevant to cerebral evolution. A salient recent example worth discussing is the sophisticated analysis of the function of BAF-170 in mouse brain development (Tuoc et al., 2013).

The intracellular domain of Nfasc186-NrCAM is then used to anchor

The intracellular domain of Nfasc186-NrCAM is then used to anchor AnkyrinG and other components of the AIS complex through interactions similar to those used to assemble nodes of Ranvier (Rasband, 2010 and Sherman and Brophy, 2005). Hence, according to this model, loss of Nfasc186 will lead to instability of sodium channels and concomitant delocalization of their associated AnkyrinG and NrCAM. Our model does not rule out the possibility that AnkryinG is also required for maintenance of the AIS by stabilizing Nfasc186, similar to its role at nodes

of Ranvier (Dzhashiashvili et al., 2007). From the current study, it was not possible to differentiate the sequence of AIS component disassembly

following Nfasc186 click here loss. Similarly, two different studies check details on the AIS of cultured neurons have found that the simultaneous accumulation of Nav channels, AnkyrinG, βIV-Spectrin, NrCAM, and Neurofascin did not permit a differential analysis of the assembly of individual AIS components (Boiko et al., 2007 and Hedstrom et al., 2008). An intriguing consequence of inactivating the Nfasc gene in adult neurons was the longer persistence of Nfasc186 at nodes of Ranvier in contrast to the AIS. This suggests that Nfasc186 has a shorter half-life at the AIS compared to nodes. According to the model we propose above, this difference would be expected if others the major difference between the mature AIS and nodes of Ranvier is the rate of turnover of their

constituent molecules. This is consistent with the emerging view that plasticity of the AIS may play a role in modulating the electrical properties of neurons ( Grubb and Burrone, 2010a and Grubb and Burrone, 2010b). The enhanced sensitivity of the AIS to hypoperfusion-induced hypoxia ( Schafer et al., 2009) may also reflect the fact that the AIS is inherently less stable than related structures, such as nodes. The fundamental role we propose for Nfasc186 in anchoring new proteins may represent an important target in regulating normal AIS function. The formation of pinceau synapses between basket cell axons and the AIS of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum has been shown to be disrupted either in the absence of AnkyrinG or by using a dominant-negative form of Nfasc186 (Ango et al., 2004). Here, we have shown that the intact AIS is also essential for maintenance of pinceau synapses. However, the persistence of apparently intact pinceau synapses for some time after AIS disruption indicates a role for other proteins in contributing to the stabilization of these structures. The perineuronal nets formed by the extracellular matrix are possible candidates (Celio et al., 1998 and Rasband, 2010).

The anterior lobe motor representation, which is inverted with re

The anterior lobe motor representation, which is inverted with respect to body orientation (foot, hand, tongue), is sequentially followed by representations of premotor networks, association networks related to executive control, and then finally the limbic-association network, MEK inhibitor sometimes called the default network. At Crus I/II the entire sequential ordering reverses and progresses

through the cerebellum with a flipped representation ending with the upright body map (tongue, hand, foot). Thus, the major cerebellar representation of the cerebral cortex may comprise two maps (and possibly a smaller third map) of the cortical mantle oriented as mirror images of each another. The established body maps in the anterior and posterior lobes may be continuous with cortical association maps. A final interesting property of cerebellar organization that has

been revealed by human neuroimaging concerns its asymmetry. Asymmetry here refers to the relative dominance of one hemisphere over the other hemisphere for a specific network or function, not simply that the cerebrum projects preferentially to the contralateral cerebellum. As noted above, the “cognitive” response first noted by Petersen et al. (1989) was right lateralized in the cerebellum consistent with the left dominance of language. Meta-analysis of task responses in the cerebellum indicates strong asymmetry as expected from notions of cerebral lateralization (e.g., Stoodley and Schmahmann, 2009a). In

a recent exploration of functional coupling, Wang et al. (2013) Luminespib in vitro reported that the asymmetrically organized networks in the cerebral cortex, meaning functional coupling on one side of the brain is stronger than the other, show a parallel but reversed asymmetry in the cerebellum. These functional asymmetries were preferential for association as compared to sensorimotor networks and varied across individuals in a predictable manner. Those individuals displaying the strongest cerebral functional asymmetries Histamine H2 receptor also possessed the strongest cerebellar asymmetries. By all measures the cerebellum appears to possess a roughly homotopic map of the cerebral cortex including its asymmetrical functional organization. A striking feature of the cerebellum is the beautifully regular and simple cellular organization that is repeated across its cortex (Ito, 1984 and Ramnani, 2006). The progress in mapping the topography of the cerebellum suggests that the cerebellum is functionally heterogeneous because the repeating cerebellar modules (microcomplexes) process distinct information dependent upon the location of the cortical input. The prevailing view, based partly on the uniformity of the cerebellar cortex, is that the processing contribution the cerebellum performs on inputs from motor areas generalizes to inputs from association cortex (see Schmahmann [1991] for an early articulation of this idea).

This phenotype was observed before TAs interacted with corticofug

This phenotype was observed before TAs interacted with corticofugal axons and before any defects in cortical axons were detected in mutant embryos ( Bagri et al., 2002) ( Figure S6). Thus, in Slit2−/− embryos, in which corridor cells are misplaced, TAs undertake external alternative paths ( Figures 7L and 7P), a situation

highly reminiscent of the chicken embryo. Because TAs express Robo1 and 2 receptors and are repelled by Slit2 (Braisted et al., 2009 and Lopez-Bendito et al., 2007), these pathfinding defects could be due either to a direct effect of Slit2 on axons and/or to an indirect effect via corridor cell positioning. To AZD6244 nmr determine the relative contribution of these modes of Slit2 activity, we first tested using slice culture experiments whether the lack of Slit2/Robo signaling in TAs directly affects their pathfinding (Figure S8). When wild-type thalamic explants are grafted in Slit2−/− coronal slices, TAs grew into the mutant corridor, even though ATM Kinase Inhibitor ic50 Slit2 is lacking in host slices (ncontrol = 12, nSlit2−/− = 12; Figure S8). Thus, consistent with Nrg1 expression in mutant embryos (data not shown), Slit2 inactivation does not affect the guidance properties of corridor cells. Conversely, Robo1−/−;Robo2−/− TAs ( Grieshammer et al., 2004, Long et al., 2004 and Ma and Tessier-Lavigne, 2007) navigate into the corridor of a wild-type coronal

slice (ncontrol = 6, nRobo1−/−;Robo2−/− = 13; Figure S8). Taken together, these experiments show that Slit2 expression within the ventral telencephalon does not directly control TA internal/external pathfinding. To further test the role of Slit2 hypothalamic expression, we grafted Robo1−/−;Robo2−/− thalamic explants

in 45° angle and wild-type slices that contain the entire axonal pathway as well as the hypothalamus ( Figures 7D and 7L). Although some Robo1−/−;Robo2−/− mutant TAs abnormally entered the hypothalamus (n = 6/9; Figure S8), thereby confirming the role of Slit2 in this region ( Braisted et al., 2009), mutant axons that entered the ventral telencephalon followed an internal path similar to wild-type axons (ncontrol = 18, nRobo1−/−;Robo2−/− = 9; Figure S8). Thus, whereas Slit2 prevents TAs from entering the hypothalamus, it does not have a major direct activity in TA positioning within the ventral telencephalon. To address if Slit2 acts indirectly on TAs via corridor cell positioning, we tested whether grafting a wild-type corridor into Slit2−/− mutant slices would be sufficient to rescue TA pathfinding defects in mutant embryos ( Figures 8A–8G). To this end, we used 45° angle slices that contained the entire axonal pathway ( Figures 7J and 8A–8C), in which we performed an initial cut at the border between the ventral telencephalon and diencephalon ( Figures 8A–8C).