The anterior lobe motor representation, which is inverted with re

The anterior lobe motor representation, which is inverted with respect to body orientation (foot, hand, tongue), is sequentially followed by representations of premotor networks, association networks related to executive control, and then finally the limbic-association network, MEK inhibitor sometimes called the default network. At Crus I/II the entire sequential ordering reverses and progresses

through the cerebellum with a flipped representation ending with the upright body map (tongue, hand, foot). Thus, the major cerebellar representation of the cerebral cortex may comprise two maps (and possibly a smaller third map) of the cortical mantle oriented as mirror images of each another. The established body maps in the anterior and posterior lobes may be continuous with cortical association maps. A final interesting property of cerebellar organization that has

been revealed by human neuroimaging concerns its asymmetry. Asymmetry here refers to the relative dominance of one hemisphere over the other hemisphere for a specific network or function, not simply that the cerebrum projects preferentially to the contralateral cerebellum. As noted above, the “cognitive” response first noted by Petersen et al. (1989) was right lateralized in the cerebellum consistent with the left dominance of language. Meta-analysis of task responses in the cerebellum indicates strong asymmetry as expected from notions of cerebral lateralization (e.g., Stoodley and Schmahmann, 2009a). In

a recent exploration of functional coupling, Wang et al. (2013) Luminespib in vitro reported that the asymmetrically organized networks in the cerebral cortex, meaning functional coupling on one side of the brain is stronger than the other, show a parallel but reversed asymmetry in the cerebellum. These functional asymmetries were preferential for association as compared to sensorimotor networks and varied across individuals in a predictable manner. Those individuals displaying the strongest cerebral functional asymmetries Histamine H2 receptor also possessed the strongest cerebellar asymmetries. By all measures the cerebellum appears to possess a roughly homotopic map of the cerebral cortex including its asymmetrical functional organization. A striking feature of the cerebellum is the beautifully regular and simple cellular organization that is repeated across its cortex (Ito, 1984 and Ramnani, 2006). The progress in mapping the topography of the cerebellum suggests that the cerebellum is functionally heterogeneous because the repeating cerebellar modules (microcomplexes) process distinct information dependent upon the location of the cortical input. The prevailing view, based partly on the uniformity of the cerebellar cortex, is that the processing contribution the cerebellum performs on inputs from motor areas generalizes to inputs from association cortex (see Schmahmann [1991] for an early articulation of this idea).

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