73 m2 as a measure to prevent CIN . While an eGFR of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 is an established risk factor for the development of CIN in diabetes, diabetes is also considered to be a risk-enhancing factor. The risk for development of CIN is increased when patients with CKD also have diabetes . In a study on CIN risk after coronary angiography (CAG), only patients with pre-existing CKD alone or combined with
diabetes ARRY-438162 were at a higher risk for CIN . In a study of CIN in patients with diabetes, CKD, or both, the risk increased in patients with both diabetes and CKD, but did not increase in patients with diabetes, or patients with CKD . In a meta-analysis of pooled individual patient data (n = 2,727) from 16 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which patients received either the iso-osmolar contrast media (iodixanol) or low-osmolar contrast media, the independent predictors of CIN included CKD, CKD plus diabetes, and the use of low-osmolar contrast media . Many studies have reported that aging and diabetes may increase the risk for the development of CIN. In a cohort study of 3,036 patients with baseline SCr
levels (<1.5 mg/dL) who did not receive prophylaxis while undergoing PCI, CIN buy SB202190 occurred in 7.3 % of patients . Risk factors for CIN included age (odds ratio [OR] 6.4, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.01–13.3), female sex (OR 2.0, 95 % CI 1.5–2.7), an abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of <50 % (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01–1.04), the presence of anemia with hemoglobin levels L-gulonolactone oxidase of <11 mg/dL (OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.01–2.4), and systolic hypotension with blood pressure of <100 mmHg (OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.01–2.2). Patients
with diabetes who were receiving insulin therapy were at the highest risk compared with similar patients receiving oral antihyperglycemic agents and diet control. In an observational study, CIN developed in 15.44 % of 136 patients who underwent CAG and measures to prevent CIN. The risk factors that seemed to display the best correlation with the risk of CIN were advanced age and heart failure (LVEF <40 %). The concomitant presence of heart failure, anemia, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, and advanced age (>70 years) was associated with a three-fold increased risk of CIN . Does the use of renin–angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors increase the risk for developing CIN? Answer: There is no Stem Cells inhibitor evidence that RAS inhibitors increase the risk for developing CIN. There is no evidence that the use of RAS inhibitors increases the risk for developing CIN. The results of observational studies on the effects of RAS inhibition on the risk of CIN have been inconsistent [14, 15], but some nephrologists have suggested that RAS inhibition may increase the incidence of CIN.