These findings suggest that compounds 2 and 3 have potential anti

These findings suggest that compounds 2 and 3 have potential anti-inflammatory activities. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: To characterize cardiac preload responsiveness in pediatric patients with cardiovascular dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy using global end-diastolic volume index, stroke volume index, cardiac index, and extravascular lung water index. Design: Prospective multicenter observational study. Setting: Medical/surgical

PICUs of seven Spanish University Medical Centers. Patients: Seventy-five pediatric patients (42 male, 33 female), median age 36 months (range, 1-207 mo), were divided into three groups: normal cardiovascular status, cardiovascular dysfunction, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Interventions: All patients received hemodynamic monitoring with PiCCO(2) (Pulsion Medical System SE, Munich, learn more Germany). PXD101 chemical structure We evaluated 598 transpulmonary thermodilution sets of measurements. In 40 patients, stroke volume index, cardiac index, and global end-diastolic volume index were measured before and after 66 fluid challenges and loadings to test fluid responsiveness at different preload levels. Measurements and Main Results: Global end-diastolic volume versus predicted body surface area exhibits a power-law relationship: Global end-diastolic volume index (= 488.8.predicted body surface area(0.388) (r(2) = 0.93). Four

levels of cardiac preload were Nocodazole established from the resulting “normal” global end-diastolic volume index (= 488.8.predicted body surface area(0.388)). Stroke volume index and cardiac index versus global end-diastolic volume index/normal global end-diastolic volume index built using a linear mixed model analysis emulated Frank-Starling curves: in cardiovascular dysfunction group, stroke volume index (geometric mean [95% CI]) was 27 mL/m(2) (24-31 mL/m(2)) at ” smaller than = 0.67 times normal global end-diastolic volume index,” 37 mL/m(2) (35-40 mL/m(2)) at ” bigger than 0.67 smaller than = 1.33 times normal global end-diastolic

volume index” (Delta stroke volume index = 35%; p smaller than 0.0001; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 75%), 45 mL/ m(2) (41-49 mL/m(2)) at ” bigger than 1.33 smaller than = 1.51 times normal global end-diastolic volume index” (Delta stroke volume index = 21%; p smaller than 0.0001; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 73%), and 47 mL/m(2) (43-51 mL/m(2)) at ” bigger than 1.51 times normal global end-diastolic volume index” (Delta stroke volume index = 4%; p = 1; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 54%). In dilated cardiomyopathy group, stroke volume index was 21 mL/m(2) (17-26 mL/m(2)) at ” bigger than 0.67 smaller than = 1.33 times normal global end-diastolic volume index,” 27 mL/m(2) (21-34 mL/ m(2)) at ” bigger than 1.33 smaller than = 1.

This damage probably reflects a combination of decreased O(2) del

This damage probably reflects a combination of decreased O(2) delivery (decreased venous return and arterial hypoxemia) and greater afterload due to hyperinflation-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. Thus, in rats breathing at an increased

end-expiratory lung volume, cardiorespiratory, not just respiratory, failure still occurred. Right heart injury and dysfunction may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality associated with acute exacerbations of obstructive airway disease.”
“Background: The aim of this study was to assess head and neck squamous cell cancer and surrounding tissue in computed tomography contrast enhanced and perfusion studies, and to examine the role of perfusion imaging AG-014699 supplier in depiction of tissue infiltration.\n\nMaterial/Methods:

We prospectively evaluated 43 primary malignant head and neck tumors, using standard CT followed by perfusion. Blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time, and permeability values were obtained using regions of interest (ROIs) over lesions and surrounding tissue. Results were compared with histological analysis of resected tissue. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for both methods.\n\nResults: We found significant differences between infiltrated and non-infiltrated tissue, especially with regard to muscles. In case of bone and salivary gland infiltration, change in perfusion this website parameters did not allow proper

diagnosis.\n\nConclusions: CTP shows promise in depicting malignant infiltration. The combined use of CECT plus CTP results in correct staging of the Salubrinal research buy majority of head and neck tumors.”
“We used Solexa sequencing technology to identify and determine the abundance of miRNAs and compared the characteristics and expression patterns of miRNA of 1-day-old and 36-week-old chicken hypothalamuses. We obtained 17,825,753 and 10,928,745 high-quality reads from 36-week-old and 1-day-old chickens, respectively. Three hundred and seventy-one conserved miRNAs were expressed in both libraries. Among the conserved miRNAs, 22 miRNAs were up-regulated and 157 miRNAs were down-regulated in the 36-week-old chicken hypothalamus tissues. The abundance of sRNAs between 1-day-old and 36-week-old chickens differed considerably. KEGG pathway analysis suggested that the target genes of highly expressed miRNAs in the chicken hypothalamus are associated with metabolism and development. This information on differential expression of miRNAs in the hypothalamus of 1-day-old and 36-week-old chickens will help us understand the molecular mechanisms of metabolism and development.”
“Neural stem cells are generally considered to be committed to becoming precursor cells before terminally differentiating into either neurons or glial cells during neural development. Neuronal and oligodendrocyte precursor cells have been identified in several areas in the murine central nervous system.

However, control reactions and subsequent kinetic studies showed

However, control reactions and subsequent kinetic studies showed that a stoichiometric, irreversible reaction of the catalyst and glycosyl donor was occurring, with a remarkable

rate variance depending upon the structure of the carboxylic acid. It was subsequently found that a combination of Bronsted acid (carboxylic acid) and Lewis acid (MgBr2) was unique in catalyzing the desired glycosylation reaction. Thus, it was concluded that the two acids act synergistically to catalyze the desired transformation. The role of the catalytic components was tested with a number of control reactions and based on these studies a mechanism is proposed herein. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Putative neural stem cells have been identified within the enteric nervous system BKM120 (ENS) of adult rodents and cultured from human myenteric plexus. Selleckchem G418 We conducted studies to identify neural stem cells or progenitor cells within the submucosa of adult human ENS. Jejunum tissue was removed

from adult human subjects undergoing gastric bypass surgery. The tissue was immunostained, and confocal images of ganglia in the submucosal plexus were collected to identify protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) – immunoractive neurons and neuronal progenitor cells that coexpress PGP 9.5 and nestin. In addition to PGP-9.5-positive/nestin-negative neuronal cells within ganglia, we observed two other types of cells: (1) cells in which PGP 9.5 and nestin were co-localized, (2) cells negative for both PGP 9.5 and nestin. These observations suggest that the latter two types of cells are related to a progenitor cell population and are consistent with the concept that the submucosa of human adult ENS contains stem cells capable of maintenance and repair within the peripheral nervous system.”
“Trypanosoma cruzi infection causes intense myocarditis, leading to cardiomyopathy and severe cardiac dysfunction. Protective adaptive immunity depends on balanced signaling through a T cell receptor and coreceptors SB525334 order expressed on the T cell

surface. Such coreceptors can trigger stimulatory or inhibitory signals after binding to their ligands in antigen-presenting cells (APC). T. cruzi modulates the expression of coreceptors in lymphocytes after infection. Deregulated inflammation may be due to unbalanced expression of these molecules. Programmed death cell receptor 1 (PD-1) is a negative T cell coreceptor that has been associated with T cell anergy or exhaustion and persistent intracellular infections. We aimed to study the role of PD-1 during T. cruzi-induced acute myocarditis in mice. Cytometry assays showed that PD-1 and its ligands are strongly upregulated in lymphocytes and APC in response to T. cruzi infection in vivo and in vitro. Lymphocytes infiltrating the myocardium exhibited high levels of expression of these molecules.

“Several carbon-black filled

styrene-butadiene rub

“Several carbon-black filled

styrene-butadiene rubbers are subjected to monotonic uniaxial tension tests in order to investigate the effects of the amount of fillers and of the crosslink density on their mechanical properties. The Young modulus, the volume changes associated with material damage and the stretch to failure are extracted and discussed. Results compare well to the literature results when exist and quantitative analysis are proposed when possible. Results show that filled rubbers are not incompressible when submitted to uniaxial tension tests and their volume changes PR-171 mw are strongly dependent of the amount of fillers but are unaffected by the crosslink density. The latter shows strong impact on the filled rubbers stretch to failure but more interestingly this impact is comparable to what is encountered in unfilled rubbers. The stretch to failure is improved by the addition of fillers with an optimum for material filled around 30 phr. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2013″
“Animals frequently switch from one behavior to another, often to meet the demands of their changing environment or internal state. What factors YM155 control these behavioral switches

and the selection of what to do or what not to do? To address these issues, we will focus on the locomotor behaviors of two distantly related “worms,” Acalabrutinib mw the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana (clade Lophotrochozoa) and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (clade Ecdysozoa). Although the neural architecture and body morphology of these organisms are quite distinct, they appear to switch between different forms of locomotion by using similar strategies of decision-making. For example, information that distinguishes between liquid and more solid environments dictates whether an animal swims or crawls. In the leech, dopamine

biases locomotor neural networks so that crawling is turned on and swimming is turned off. In C. elegans, dopamine may also promote crawling, a form of locomotion that has gained new attention.”
“A new fluorescent nanoparticle was synthesized by chemical crosslinking of polyacrylic acid using 4-aminoethanol-N-hydroxyethanyl-1,8-naphthalimide as the crosslinker. The particle possesses excellent characteristics, including low cytotoxicity, water solubility and good fluorescence properties. The interaction of the particle with bovine serum albumin was investigated by absorbance, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods. The interaction mechanisms, binding model and reciprocal effects on structure and fluorescence between nanoparticle and protein are discussed. The spectral data indicated that the nanoparticle could spontaneously form a reversible complex with bovine serum albumin in solution used mainly by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces.

Senescent cells were characterized using the senescence-associate

Senescent cells were characterized using the senescence-associated-beta-galactosidase marker (SA-P-Gal marker) by staining with chromogenic substrate (X-Gal) to produce blue coloration of SA-P-Gal-positive cells and microscopy analysis.\n\nResults: The results we obtained show that between 25 and 40% of chondrocytes were in apoptosis and all of them were SA-beta-Gal-positive.\n\nConclusions: These results demonstrate that the death of osteoarthritic chondrocytes is an apoptotic phenomenon which is preceded by an accelerated mechanism of replicative senescence. (C) 2008 Clinical Cytometry Society”
“Constitutive heterochromatin

is essential for chromosome maintenance in all eukaryotes. However, the repetitive nature of the underlying DNA. the presence of very stable protein-DNA complexes and the highly compacted nature of this this website type of chromatin represent a challenge for the DNA replication machinery Data collected from different model organisms suggest that at least some of the components of the DNA replication checkpoint could be essential for AZD1480 inhibitor ensuring the completion of DNA replication in the

context of heterochromatin. I review and discuss the literature that directly or indirectly contributes to the formulation of this hypothesis. In particular, PXD101 I focus my attention on Rif1, a newly discovered member of the DNA replication checkpoint. Recent data generated in mammalian cells highlight the spatial and temporal relation between Rift. pericentromeric

heterochromatin and S-phase. I review these recent and the previous data coming from studies performed in yeast in order to highlight the possible evolutionary conserved links and propose a molecular model for Rif1 role in heterochromatin replication. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved”
“Pluripotent stem cells are characterized by the capacity to self-renew and to differentiate into all the cell types of the body. To identify novel regulators of pluripotency, we screened cDNA libraries (>30,000 clones) in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells for factors that modulate the expression of a luciferase reporter driven by the promoter of the pluripotency master regulator Nanog. Ninety confirmed hits activated the reporter and 14 confirmed hits inhibited the reporter by more than two-fold. The identified hits were evaluated by gain-and loss-of-functions approaches. The reporter-activating hits Timp2, Hig2, and Mki67ip promoted embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal when episomally overexpressed in ES cells, whereas the reporterinhibiting hits PU.

Here, sixteen microsatellite loci were developed and twelve

Here, sixteen microsatellite loci were developed and twelve PF-04929113 order polymorphic loci were used to investigate the genetic variation on 30 wild individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 15, with the average of 6,000. The observed and expected heterozygosity values varied from 0.2333 to 0.9000 and 0.2096 to 0.9203, respectively. Only one locus (YBJX28) significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. No significant linkage

disequilibrium was detected. These polymorphic markers should be useful tool for assessing population genetics of Varanus salvator.”
“Krppel-like factor 17 (KLF17), a member of the KLF transcription factor family, is elevated in endometrial cancer tissues, and KLF17 induces the epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) of endometrial cancer cells via direct activation of key EMT inducer TWIST1.Krppel-like factor 17 (KLF17), a member of the KLF transcription factor family, has been shown to inhibit

the epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor growth. However, the expression, the cellular function and the mechanism of KLF17 in endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC; a dominant type of endometrial cancer) remain elusive. Here, we report that among the KLF family members, KLF17 was consistently upregulated in EEC cell lines compared with immortalized endometrial epithelial cells. Overexpression of KLF17 in EEC cell lines induced EMT and promoted cell invasion learn more and drug resistance, resulting in increased expression of TWIST1. In contrast, KLF17 suppression reversed EMT, diminished cell invasion, restored drug sensitivity and suppressed TWIST1 expression. Luciferase assays, site-directed mutagenesis and transcription factor DNA-binding analysis demonstrated that KLF17 transactivates Small molecule library cell assay TWIST1

expression by directly binding to the TWIST1 promoter. Knockdown of TWIST1 prevented KLF17-induced EMT. Consistent with these results, both KLF17 and TWIST1 levels were found to be elevated in EECs compared with normal tissues. KLF17 expression positively correlated with tumor grade but inversely correlated with estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. Thus, KLF17 may have an oncogenic role during EEC progression via initiating EMT through the regulation of TWIST1.”
“Background With the continuous improvement of maneuvering performance of modern high-performance aircraft, the protection problem of flight personnel under high G acceleration, the development as well as research on monitoring system and the equipment for human physiological signals processing which include electroencephalogram (EEG) have become more and more important.

MRI was performed 1 day and then weekly for 5 weeks after middle

MRI was performed 1 day and then weekly for 5 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion for all rats. Results-The ischemic lesion volumes after stroke as measured using T-2 maps were

not significantly different between the T2DM and WT rats. Compared with the WT rats, Selleckchem LDN-193189 the volumes of blood-brain barrier disruption evaluated using contrast-enhanced T-1-weighted imaging with gadolinium-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid and the cerebral hemorrhagic volumes measured with susceptibility-weighted imaging were significantly (P smaller than 0.05) larger in the T2DM rats from 1 to 5 weeks after stroke; values of diffusion fractional anisotropy were significantly lower in T2DM rats (P smaller than 0.03) than in WT rats after stroke. These MRI measurements were consistent with histological data. Conclusions-Using MRI, T-2-weighted imaging did not detect significant differences of the ischemic lesion

volumes between T2DM and WT rats. In contrast to the WT rats, however, contrast-enhanced T 1 -weighted imaging and susceptibility-weighted imaging identified much more severe ischemic vascular damage, whereas fractional anisotropy demonstrated lower axonal density in the T2DM rats after stroke.”
“PURPOSE. Heterozygous mutations of the PAX6 gene cause a variety of ocular malformations, the best known being aniridia (absence of the iris). Mutation analyses and detailed clinical evaluations were performed in 43 Barasertib concentration individuals NSC23766 datasheet with aniridia or closely related ocular anomalies, to investigate whether phenotype correlates with mutation type.\n\nMETHODS. Case notes and medical records were reviewed and patients were reexamined when necessary. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) analysis and sequencing of the PAX6 coding region was performed in individuals whose mutation was unknown.\n\nRESULTS.

The most common PAX6 mutations identified were premature termination mutations, amino acid substitutions, and C-terminal extensions. Six novel mutations are reported. Mutations that inactivate one copy of the gene typically caused a severe phenotype including foveal hypoplasia, marked iris anomalies, and severe visual impairment. Missense mutations, all affecting invariant amino acids in the paired domain, caused milder phenotypes in this cohort, with a lower incidence of foveal hypoplasia and less severe visual loss. C-terminal extension mutations caused relatively severe anomalies and marked reduction in vision. Two C-terminal extension cases had a unilateral exudative retinopathy, resembling Coats’ disease, which has not previously been reported in association with PAX6 mutation.\n\nCONCLUSIONS. PAX6 mutations cause panocular malformations that vary considerably in pattern and severity. In our cohort, iris hypoplasia, nystagmus, and foveal hypoplasia were most common, with cataracts, corneal anomalies, and high refractive errors also frequently observed.

In particular, the action of selection means that N(e) varies acr

In particular, the action of selection means that N(e) varies across INCB024360 cost the genome, and advances in genomic techniques are

giving new insights into how selection shapes N(e).”
“The highly polarized morphology and complex geometry of neurons is determined to a great extent by the structural and functional organization of the secretory pathway. It is intuitive to propose that the spatial arrangement of secretory organelles and their dynamic behavior impinge on protein trafficking and neuronal function, but these phenomena and their consequences are not well delineated. Here we analyze the architecture and motility of the archetypal endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and their relationship to the microtubule cytoskeleton and post-translational modifications of tubulin. We also review the dynamics of the ER in axons, dendrites and spines, and discuss the role of ER dynamics on protein mobility and trafficking

in neurons. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Migraine is a common, multisymptom disorder that can severely impact the daily activities of migraineurs. Triptans (primarily sumatriptan) are the most commonly prescribed treatment for migraine and are considered a relatively safe and effective initial therapy. Unfortunately, current sumatriptan formulations (i.e., oral, nasal, subcutaneous) SBE-β-CD solubility dmso may be associated with limitations that can result in patients’ delaying or avoiding treatment. For oral formulations, these limitations include difficulty in taking an oral medication due to the nausea and vomiting that often accompany migraine, and inconsistent absorption, whereas nasal and subcutaneous formulations may be associated with check details low bioavailability and an undesirable rate of adverse events, respectively. An alternative to current formulations is transdermal drug delivery, particularly iontophoresis. Transdermal

delivery has several advantages over current formulations, including avoidance of the gastrointestinal tract, controlled and sustained delivery, and convenient administration. This article reviews the in vitro, in vivo, and preclinical data supporting the use of iontophoresis for the delivery of sumatriptan, as well as the recent clinical data for Zelrix (NuPathe Inc., Conshohocken, PA), an iontophoretic sumatriptan patch currently in phase III development for the treatment of migraine.”
“Platelet activation is closely associated with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Various compounds including Ca(2+) ionophores are able to bigger platelet aggregation by increasing intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in platelets. In the present study, we monitored the effect of the phytoestrogen ferutinin, which acts as a Ca(2+) ionophore in human blood platelets; its ionophore-like properties include upregulation of [Ca(2+)](in), activation of fibrinogen receptors and increased fibrinogen binding.

In C maenas, incorporation of l-(3-(3)H)-serine and l-(2-(14)C)-

In C. maenas, incorporation of l-(3-(3)H)-serine and l-(2-(14)C)-ethanolamine into PC of hepatopancreas was strongly inhibited after acclimation to fresh water (FW). The results show that PC synthesis via the PEMT pathway and its subsequent release into hemolymph are both activated in SW- compared to FW-adapted animals. SW-adaptation Screening Library also resulted in increased tissue concentrations of betaine and labeling from l-(U-(14)C)-serine, suggesting that the PEMT-derived PC is used for the synthesis of organic osmolytes. The physiological relevance of these observations is discussed.”
“Wegener ‘s granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic

vasculitis that can affect any organic system, but primarily involves the upper and lower respiratory tracts and the kidneys.

WG relatively frequently affects the nervous system (in 30-50%), usually in the form of peripheral or cranial neuropathy. Involvement of the brain is reported in a very small percentage of patients (2%-8%). Three major mechanisms have been described as the cause of central nervous system (CNS) disease in WG: contiguous invasion of granuloma from extracranial sites, remote intracranial granuloma and CNS vasculitis. CNS involvement caused by contiguous Selleck MG132 invasion of granuloma from extracranial sites is the rarest. We report the case of a 37-year-old man with WG, manifested as a pulmonary and paranasal sinuses disease, with. orbital and CNS involvement, caused by contiguous invasion from the paranasal sinuses. In this report, the rich spectrum of findings Lonafarnib achieved by computed tomography and magnetic resonance are demonstrated. The importance of computed tomography in bony destruction PNS findings, and the

importance of MR imaging in evaluation of the direct intracranial spread from nasal, paranasal and orbital disease are also emphasized.”
“Joint kinematic assessment using an electromagnetic tracking device (EMTD) requires palpation-digitization (PD) of bony landmarks to define the anatomical axes. Errors in PD of bony landmarks can perturb the anatomical axes and affect the validity and reliability of kinematic measurements. The validity and reliability of PD for kinematic measurement needs to be explored before recommending its wider use. A systematic search of 15 electronic databases located studies assessing validity and/or reliability of PD for joint kinematic assessment. Two independent reviewers used the QUADAS and QAREL tools to assess quality of validity and reliability studies respectively. The results were synthesized qualitatively using a level of evidence approach. Eight studies satisfied the final eligibility criteria and were included in the review. The validity, intra-rater reliability and inter-rater reliability were assessed in three, seven and one study respectively. The overall level of evidence for validity of PD technique was strong with high correlation (>= 0.80) reported by three high (>= 60%) quality studies.

This study compares the sub-cellular distribution of AQP0 and AQP

This study compares the sub-cellular distribution of AQP0 and AQP5 during embryonic and postnatal fibre cell development

in the mouse lens to understand how the immunolabelling patterns for both AQPs observed in adult lens are first established. Immunohistochemistry was used to map the cellular and sub-cellular distribution of AQP5 and AQP0 throughout the lens in cryosections from adult (6 weeks-8 months) and postnatal (0-2 weeks) mouse lenses and in sections from paraffin embedded mouse embryos (E10-E19). All sections were imaged by fluorescence A-1155463 supplier confocal microscopy. Using antibodies directed against the C-terminus of each AQP, AQP5 was abundantly expressed early in development,

being found in the cytoplasm of cells of the lens vesicle and surrounding tissues (E10), while AQP0 was detected later (E11), and only in the membranes of elongating primary fibre cells. During the course of subsequent embryonic and postnatal development the pattern of cytoplasmic AQP5 and membranous AQP0 labelling was maintained until postnatal day 6 (P6). From P6 AQP5 labelling became progressively more membranous initially in the lens nucleus and then later in all regions of the lens, while AQP0 labelling was abruptly lost in the lens nucleus due to C-terminal truncation. Our results show that the spatial distribution patterns of AQP0 and AQP5 observed in the adult lens are established during a narrow window of postnatal development (P6 P15) that precedes eye opening and IPI-145 in vivo coincides with regression of the hyaloid vascular system. Our results support the hypothesis that, in the older fibre cells, insertion of AQP5 into the fibre cell membrane may compensate for any change in the functionality ALK cancer of AQP0 induced by truncation of its C-terminal tail. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain JS was isolated from a bed of mushrooms Pleurotus sajor caju The organism could produce a novel single-component thermostable chitinase that was purified by ion-exchange chromatography using

DEAE-cellulose in 7 64% yield and in an 8 1-fold enhancement in purity Its molecular weight is 22 kDa The enzyme is a chitobiosidase since the chitin hydrolysate is N(I) N(II)-diacetylchitobiose The optimum temperature for enzyme activity is 55 degrees C and the optimum pH is 8 0 It was completely inhibited by Hg(2+) ions whereas Co(2+) ions served as an activator The thermostability of this enzyme is Important in the bioconversion of chitinous waste and for the production of chitooligosaccharides (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved”
“We prepared monoclonal antibodies against N-(gamma-maleimidobutyryloxy)succinimide-conjugated vancomycin (VM). The monoclonal antibody was specific for conjugated or free VM.