71 mm Of 112 condyles, 55% showed a postoperative decrease in co

71 mm. Of 112 condyles, 55% showed a postoperative decrease in condylar volume, with a mean reduction of 105 mm(3) (6.1% of the original condylar volume). The magnitude of condylar remodelling (CR) was significantly correlated with skeletal relapse (p = 0.003). Patients with a CR greater than 17% of the original condylar volume exhibited relapse as seen in progressive condylar resorption. Female patients with a high mandibular angle who exhibited postoperative CR were particularly at risk for postoperative relapse. Gender, preoperative condylar volume, and downward

displacement of pogonion at surgery were prognostic factors for CR (r(2) = 21%). It could be concluded that the condylar volume can be applied as a useful 3D radiographic parameter for the diagnosis and follow-up of postoperative skeletal relapse and progressive Dibutyryl-cAMP cell line condylar resorption.

(C) 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“An efficient protocol for the establishment of transformed root culture of Verbascum xanthophoeniceum using sonication-assisted GSK1120212 price Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation is reported. Only 10 days after the inoculation with A. rhizogenes ATCC 15834 and 45 s ultrasound exposure, hairy roots appeared on 75% of the Verbascum leaves. Ten hairy root lines were isolated, although only half of them

were free of bacterial contamination and started growing when excised from mother explants. The transgenic nature of the most vigorously growing hairy root clones (VX1 and VX6) was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Under submerged cultivation both hairy root selleckchem clones accumulated high biomass amounts (12.8 and 14.3 g L(-1), respectively) and significant amounts of bioactive phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside (over 6-times more than in mother plant leaves). LC-APCI-MS analyses confirmed verbascoside accumulation in hairy root clones along with three other phenylethanoid glycosides (forsythoside B, leucosceptoside B and martynoside) and an iridoid glycoside aucubin. This is the first report on the induction of hairy roots of Verbascum plants.”
“Vinegar and wine processing of medicinal plants are two traditional pharmaceutical techniques which have been used for thousands of years in China. Tetrahydropalmatine (THP), dehydrocorydaline (DHC) and protopine are three major bioactive molecules in Rhizoma Corydalis. In this study, a simple and reliable HPLC method was developed for simultaneous analysis of THP, DHC and protopine in rat tissues after gastric gavage administration of Rhizoma Corydalis. The validated HPLC method was successfully applied to investigate the effect of wine and vinegar processing on the compounds’ distribution in rat tissues.

More studies into the capabilities of MALDI-TOF ICMS to identify

More studies into the capabilities of MALDI-TOF ICMS to identify fungi are required.”
“Background: HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may experience symptoms because of HIV disease or treatment. Symptoms might negatively

affect quality of life, adherence, virological response, and survival. We investigated to what extent HIV-infected patients receiving cART experience symptoms with a median follow-up of 5.1 years. Additionally, we studied whether self-reported symptoms were related to concurrent quality of life and virological failure. Methods: Patients from the ATHENA cohort completed questionnaires on self-reported Nutlin-3 in vivo symptoms and quality of life every 6 months (January 1998 to June 2005). Quality of life was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV), resulting in a physical health summary (PHS) score and a mental health summary (MHS) score. Growth curve VX-770 mw models were conducted to investigate the course of symptoms. Random effect models were carried out to study the association with concurrent quality of life and virological response. Results: We included 391 patients, completing 2,851 questionnaires. Symptoms that increased significantly over time were numb feeling in fingers or toes (P < .01), pain in legs (P < .01), pain when urinating (P < .01), sore muscles (P = .02), tingling of hands

or feet (P = .06), and difficulties with seeing (P < .01).

All self-reported symptoms were related to lower levels of PHS and MHS (P < .01). Trouble with sleeping (odds ratio [OR] 1.5; 95% CI, 1.04-2.2), constipation (OR 2.8; 95% CI, 1.7-4.8), pain in legs (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.6), and numb feeling in fingers or toes (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7) were related to concurrent virological response. Conclusion: HIV-infected patients on cART report a large range of symptoms. Management of symptoms is relevant because a number of symptoms are related to poorer quality of life and virological failure.”
“Primary angioplasty AZD7762 for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is recommended only if symptom duration is < 12 h. We evaluated final infarct size (FIS) and myocardial salvage in early presenters (< 12 h) vs. late presenters (12-72 h) undergoing primary angioplasty.\n\nMyocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) was performed acutely to assess area at risk (AAR) before angioplasty and repeated after 30 days to assess FIS (% of LV myocardium), salvage index (% non-infarcted AAR), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Late presenters (n = 55) compared with early presenters (n = 341) had larger median FIS [14% (inter-quartile range 3-30) vs. 7% (2-18), P = 0.005], lower salvage index [53% (27-89) vs. 69% (45-91), P = 0.05], and lower LVEF [48% (44-58%) vs. 53% (47-59), P = 0.04]. However, FIS, salvage index, and LVEF correlated weakly with symptom duration (R(2)-values < 0.10).

These findings indicate that Hex plays a pivotal role during indu

These findings indicate that Hex plays a pivotal role during induction of liver development from endoderm in this in vitro model and suggest that this strategy may provide important insight into the generation of functional hepatocytes from ESCs. (HEPATOLOGY 2010;51:633-641.)”
“Mercury

accumulation was investigated by constructing and testing empirical equations based on mercury in soil (C (s) ) and in 10 terrestrial insects (C (i) ). C (s) ranged from 0.13 to 41.01 mg/kg. C (i) differed with species and the highest was found in dragonfly. C (s) CYT387 and C (i) showed a good linear fit, and a simple equation was used in predicting C (i) when insects were classified into one Insecta group (r = 0.3399, p = 0.0037). The taxonomy can affect validities of empirical equations, which fit field data well when insects were grouped by feeding habits, and when grouped by species, empirical equations were suitable only for certain insects.”
“Object. The pathophysiology of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), and the related problem of patient selection for

treatment of this condition, have been of great interest since the description of this seemingly paradoxical condition nearly 50 years ago. Recently, Eide has reported that measurements of the amplitude of the intracranial pressure (ICP) can both positively and negatively predict response to CSF shunting. Specifically, the fraction of time spent in a “high amplitude” (> 4 mm Hg) state predicted response to shunting, which may ACY-738 clinical trial represent a marker for hydrocephalic pathophysiology. Increased ICP amplitude might suggest decreased brain compliance, meaning a static measure of a pressure-volume

ratio. Recent studies of canine data have shown that the brain compliance can be described as a frequency-dependent function. The normal canine brain seems to show enhanced ability to absorb the pulsations around the heart rate, quantified as a cardiac pulsation absorbance (CPA), with properties like a notch filter in engineering. This frequency Bromosporine supplier dependence of the function is diminished with development of hydrocephalus in dogs. In this pilot study, the authors sought to determine whether frequency dependence could be observed in humans, and whether the frequency dependence would be any different in epochs with high ICP amplitude compared with epochs of low ICP amplitude.\n\nMethods. Systems analysis was applied to arterial blood pressure (ABP) and ICP waveforms recorded from 10 patients undergoing evaluations of idiopathic NPH to calculate a time-varying transfer function that reveals frequency dependence and CPA, the measure of frequency-dependent compliance previously used in animal experiments. The ICP amplitude was also calculated in the same samples, so that epochs with high (> 4 mm Hg) versus low (<= 4 mm Hg) amplitude could be compared in CPA and transfer functions.\n\nResults.

2% The proportions of cases reported were

2%. The proportions of cases reported were C59 research buy 68.1% for government hospitals and 53.8% for private reporting sites.

Conclusions: Reporting of NT cases is incomplete. Active promotion of private sector participation, community involvement, and strengthening of the government sector as a way of improving NT reporting and surveillance is strongly suggested. (C) 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The

reason why abnormal immune response exists in acute rheumatic fever is not exactly explained. The influence of co-pathogens like certain viruses were mentioned regarding the initiation of the immunological reaction in acute rheumatic fever patients by several authors since 1970. This study was designed to find the role or effect of some viral infections in the development of rheumatic fever. In this study, 47 cases with acute rheumatic fever (acute rheumatic arthritis, acute rheumatic carditis, and chorea), 20 cases with chronic rheumatic fever, 20 cases with streptococcal pharyngitis, and 20 healthy age-

and gender-matched control cases were involved. Serological and molecular tests were made including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, rubella virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV group 1), see more and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). HBsAg, rubella IgM and EBV IgM positivity were not seen in any of patients with rheumatic fever. Although antiHBs seropositivity was higher in the control group, it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). There was no difference in rubella IgG, HSV IgM seropositivity, either (p>0.05). EBV DNA was searched by the polymerase chain reaction technique; due to the latent nature of the virus, no significant difference was found between the control group and the other groups (p>0.05). In this study,

no positive correlation could be found to support the synergism theories regarding the streptoccocus infection and viral infections in the development of acute rheumatic fever. Only EBV DNA positivity Compound C nmr was found in all acute rheumatic fever cases but not in the control group may lead to further studies with larger series of patients.”
“Photografting reactions are usually carried out in organic solvents due to the water insoluble nature of photoinitiators such as benzophenone (BP). This work reports the effect of water and mixed solvents containing water and ethanol on the surface photografting of methacrylic acid (MAA) onto polyethylene initiated by BP. The percent grafting increased with the increase of water volume ratio in the mixed solvent, and BP showed the highest photoinitiation efficiency when dissolved in pure water solvent. Effects of BP concentration, monomer concentration, and monomer type on photografting were studied. The percent grafting showed the maximum at a lower BP concentration (0.20 mol/mol %) in pure water solvent than that (0.60 mol/mol %) in the mixed solvent with 90 v/v % water.

52 9 years In all children, the all-seeing needle was safely int

52.9 years. In all children, the all-seeing needle was safely introduced into the abdominal cavity under direct vision. Then, CO2 pneumoperitoneum was succesfully performed. The mean time for optical puncture was calculated as 1.1 Selleckchem Small molecule library +/- 0.8 minutes. No complication was encountered during the introduction

of the needle, creation of the pneumoperitoneum, and placement of the trocars. Conclusions: The all-seeing needle appears to be beneficial in safe entry and for creating pneumoperitoneum in laparoscopic pediatric urology cases. It eliminates the disadvantages of the Veress needle, which is blunt insertion, and may possibly prevent complications.”
“Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder that is characterized by diffuse musculoskeletal pain and sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. In this pilot clinical trial,

we tested the effectiveness of low-dose naltrexone in treating the symptoms of fibromyalgia.

Participants HIF-1 pathway completed a single-blind, crossover trial with the following time line: baseline (2 weeks), placebo (2 weeks), drug (8 weeks), and washout (2 weeks).

Ten women meeting criteria for fibromyalgia and not taking an opioid medication.

Naltrexone, in addition to antagonizing opioid receptors on neurons, also inhibits microglia activity in the central nervous system. At low doses (4.5 mg), naltrexone may inhibit the activity of microglia and reverse central and peripheral inflammation.

Participants completed reports of symptom severity everyday,

using a handheld computer. In addition, participants visited the lab every 2 weeks for tests of mechanical, heat, and cold pain sensitivity.

Low-dose naltrexone reduced fibromyalgia symptoms in the entire cohort, with a greater than 30% reduction of symptoms over placebo. In TPX-0005 inhibitor addition, laboratory visits showed that mechanical and heat pain thresholds were improved by the drug. Side effects (including insomnia and vivid dreams) were rare, and described as minor and transient. Baseline erythrocyte sedimentation rate predicted over 80% of the variance in drug response. Individuals with higher sedimentation rates (indicating general inflammatory processes) had the greatest reduction of symptoms in response to low-dose naltrexone.

We conclude that low-dose naltrexone may be an effective, highly tolerable, and inexpensive treatment for fibromyalgia.”
“Although tractography can noninvasively map axonal pathways, current approaches are typically incomplete or computationally intensive. Fast, complete maps may serve as a useful clinical tool for assessing neurological disorders stemming from pathological anatomical connections such as epilepsy. We re-frame tractography in terms of logic and conditional probabilities. The formalism inherently includes global constraints and can compute connections between any two arbitrary regions of the brain.

Samples were taken right after spiking and during viral inactivat

Samples were taken right after spiking and during viral inactivation treatment by 1% TnBP-1% Triton X-45 at

31 degrees C. DENV-1 infectivity was assessed on Vero E6 cells by a focus-forming assay (FFA). Culture medium and complement-inactivated plasma were used as experimental controls. Experiments were done in duplicate. Results DENV-1 infectivity was 7.5 log in spiked plasma and 7.1 and 7.3 log in spiked cryoprecipitate. There was no loss of DENV-1 infectivity in the spiked materials, nor in the controls not subjected to S/D treatment. No infectivity was found in plasma and cryoprecipitate subjected to S/D treatment at the first time-point evaluated (10 min). Conclusion DENV-1 was strongly inactivated in plasma and cryoprecipitate, respectively, within 10 min of 1% TnBP/1% Triton X-45 treatment Selleckchem VX-680 at 31 degrees C. These data provide

a reassurance of the safety of such S/D-treated plasma and cryoprecipitate with regard to the risk of transmission of all DENV serotypes and other flaviviruses.”
“A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether harvesting the saphenous vein (SV) as a conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using a no-touch technique would result in better patency rates. This technique involves the harvest of the SV with a pedicle of peri-vascular tissue left intact and the avoidance of distension of the vein prior to anastomosis. Proteasome cleavage XMU-MP-1 A total of 405 papers

were found using the reported searches of which eight represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, study type, population, main outcome measures and results are tabulated. The studies found analysed the ultrastructural and mechanical properties of the endothelium and vessel walls of the two harvesting techniques; the protein and enzymatic expression and activity observed; the early atherosclerotic changes detected; and the overall patency of the grafts during short- and long-term angiographical follow-up. Three small prospectively randomised studies compared the patency of grafts harvested using the two techniques and found significant improvements in graft patency using the no-touch harvesting technique in comparison to both the conventional technique and more importantly comparable to the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) patency. The most favourable difference was that of graft patency after 8.5 years of follow-up [90% vs. 76% (P=0.01), LITA patency 90%], and incidence of graft stenosis [11% vs. 25% (P=0.006)]. These findings were supported by the demonstrated improvements in the cellular integrity of the vessels and the reduction in the mechanisms leading to graft failure seen in the no-touch harvested SV grafts.

Postoperative follow-up of patients operated on with

this

Postoperative follow-up of patients operated on with

this modified technique indicates that the technique is feasible and safe, with no apparent this website damage to the ovary. (C) 2009, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: There is growing evidence on the usefulness of biomarkers in the early detection of preterm infants at risk for brain damage. However, among different tools Activin A, S100B protein and adrenomedullin assessment offer the possibility to investigate brain/multiorgan function and development. This could be especially useful in perinatal medicine that requires even more non-invasive techniques in order to fulfill the minimal handling in diagnostic and therapeutic strategy performance. Materials and methods: The concept of Unconventional Biological Fluid (UBF: urine and saliva) is becoming even stronger and regards the assessment in non-invasive biological fluids of biochemical markers involved in the cascade of events leading to brain damage. Results: Activin A, S100B protein

Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor and adrenomedullin in UBF were increased in preterm newborns developing brain damage and/or ominous outcome. Conclusions: The present manuscript offers an update on the usefulness of Activin A, S100B protein an adrenomedullin in UBF as brain damage markers. The findings open a new cue on the use of these markers in daily neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) activities.”
“Objectives:

To review the current status of lupus registries, highlight the importance and evolution of registries in clinical see more lupus research, discuss substantial advances in the understanding of lupus through the use of registries, and discuss the future role of registries in terms of opportunities and challenges.

Methods: The literature reviewed originated from the PubMed database and was limited to adult disease in articles published before June 01, 2008. Keywords used in the PubMed search included the following terms: systemic lupus erythematosus, registry, cohort, and database. All articles were sorted and analyzed according to a template devised by the authors describing the different types of registries.

Results: The most important features of a lupus registry are that they contain a large number of subjects and reflect a relatively real world environment for lupus patients. Data obtained from the lupus registries are essential for planning, designing, and conducting clinical lupus studies, especially those difficult, inappropriate, or even unethical to study in randomized controlled trials. Up to now, some well-conducted registries have received recognition for their contributions to lupus research through their focus on different goals: epidemiology, genetics, ethnic diversity, clinical features, or outcomes.

The ZBTSC technique is characterized by an increased sensitivity

The ZBTSC technique is characterized by an increased sensitivity with respect to a standard TSC analysis. Due to the absence of the thermally activated background current, new TSC peaks have been observed in both HPHT and pCVD diamond films, related to shallow activation energies usually obscured by the emission of the dominant impurities. The ZBTSC peaks are explained in terms HDAC inhibitor of defect discharge

in the nonequilibrium potential distribution created by a nonuniform traps filling at the metal-diamond junctions. The electric field due to the charged defects has been estimated in a quasizero bias TSC experiment by applying an external bias. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3126704]“
“Neonatal seizures are one of the most common neurological disorders in infants. However, the optimal treatment strategy for neonatal seizures Autophagy signaling inhibitor remains controversial and there is little data regarding current treatment of neonatal seizures. In this study we describe the current treatment of neonatal seizures and variation in practice among 31 pediatric hospitals in the United States. We retrospectively identified 6099 infants

hospitalized in the first month of life in one of 31 pediatric hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System, with a discharge diagnosis of seizure. As expected, most treated infants received phenobarbital. However, there was significant interhospital variability for all treatments studied including any antiepileptic drug treatment, phenytoin treatment, antiepileptic drug treatment through discharge, number of antiepileptic drugs used, and treatment with pyridoxine (P < .001). These findings highlight the need for rigorous controlled outcome studies to determine optimal therapy for neonatal seizures and devise treatment standards.”
“The signs of metabolic syndrome following chronic excessive macronutrient intake include body weight gain, excess visceral

adipose deposition, hyperglycaemia, glucose and insulin BV-6 Apoptosis inhibitor intolerances, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, endothelial damage, cardiovascular hypertrophy, inflammation, ventricular contractile dysfunction, fibrosis, and fatty liver disease. Recent studies show increased activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) during obesity and metabolic dysfunction. We have tested whether sEH inhibition has therapeutic potential in a rat model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. In these high-carbohydrate, high-fat-fed rats, chronic oral treatment with trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB), a potent sEH inhibitor, alleviated the signs of metabolic syndrome in vivo including glucose, insulin, and lipid abnormalities, changes in pancreatic structure, increased systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular structural and functional abnormalities, and structural and functional changes in the liver.

The potential of the Dy3+: YAG transparent ceramics for yellow or

The potential of the Dy3+: YAG transparent ceramics for yellow or blue laser emission is discussed. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3656718]“
“We studied the kinetics and mechanism of the charge-transfer polymerization of methyl Pitavastatin manufacturer methacrylate (MMA) initiated with n-butyl amine (BA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) catalyzed by palladium dichloride (PdCl2 or PdII) in a dimethyl sulfoxide medium by using a dilatometric technique at 60 degrees

C. The rate of polymerization (Rp) was a function of [MMA], [BA], [CCl4], and [PdII]. The kinetic data indicated a mechanism involving the possible participation of the charge-transfer complex formed between the BAPdII complex and CCl4 or monomer in the polymerization of MMA. In the absence of either CCl4 or BA, no polymerization of MMA was observed under these experimental conditions. Rp was inhibited by hydroquinone; this suggested a free-radical initiation. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: Several techniques for liver resection have been developed. We compared radiofrequency-assisted (RF) and clamp-crush CUDC-907 inhibitor (CC) liver resection (LR) in terms of blood loss,

operating time and short-term outcomes in primary and metastatic tumour resection.

Methods: From 2002 to 2007, 196 consecutive patients with primary or metastatic hepatic tumours underwent RF-LR (n = 109; group 1) or CC-LR (n = 87; group 2) in our unit. Primary endpoints were intraoperative blood loss (and blood transfusion requirements) and total operative time. Secondary endpoints included postoperative complications, mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay. Data were collected retrospectively on all patients with primary or secondary liver lesions.

Results: Blood loss was similar (P = 0.09) between the two groups of patients with the exception of high MELD score

(> 9) cirrhotic patients, in whom blood loss was lower when RF-LR was used (P < 0.001). Total operative time and transection time were shorter in the CC-LR group (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01, respectively), except for high MELD score (> 9) cirrhotic patients, in whom total operation and transection times were shorter when RF-LR was used (P = 0.04). Rates of bile leak and abdominal abscess formation were higher Selleckchem Savolitinib after RF-LR (P = 0.04 for both).

Conclusions: Clamp-crush LR is reliable and results in the same amount of blood loss and a shorter operating time compared with RF-LR. Radiofrequency-assisted LR is a unique, simple and safe method of resection, which may be indicated in cirrhotic patients with high MELD scores.”
“Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen with increasing relevance in a variety of hospital-acquired infections especially among intensive care unit patients. Resistance to antimicrobial agents is the main reason for A. baumannii spread. A.

Radical scavenging and metal chelating assays were based on the m

Radical scavenging and metal chelating assays were based on the measurement of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferrozine absorbance at 517 and 562 nm, respectively. Mushrooms total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Antimicrobial activity was measured using Kirby-Bauer Susceptibility

Test. Cytotoxicity was assessed using brine shrimp toxicity assay.

Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.90 – 6.03 mg GAE per g of dry sample and 0.17 – 6.95 mg QE per g of dry sample, respectively. A. polytricha demonstrated the strongest radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. Moderate antimicrobial activity was found for extracts of both P. florida and A. polytricha. Cytotoxicity LD50 ranged from 46.9 – 115.8 mu g/ml.

Conclusion: Rabusertib mouse The results suggest that A. polytricha is a suitable candidate for chemoprevention and would safe for use in large doses.”
“Hypothesis: NF2 gene alterations may have a clinical impact in non-NF2 vestibular schwannomas (VSs).

Background: It has been suggested that NF2 mutations might correlate with clinical expression of VS in NF2 patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of genetic alterations in the NF2 gene on epidemiologic, clinical, and radiologic features of patients with sporadic VS. The association between cigarette consumption and the molecular genetic findings was also studied.

Methods: The study group

consisted of 51 patients who underwent surgery Erastin for removal of vestibular schwannoma in our institution between January 2006 and December 2010. Five highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were used to observe the frequency PD98059 of loss

of heterozygosity (LOH) in chromosome 22. The NF2 gene mutations were detected using polymerase chain reaction amplification and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis (PCR/dHPLC), and direct sequencing of NF2. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) of the NF2 gene was also performed.

Results: An NF2 mutation was identified in 49%, 22q LOH in 57%, and MLPA alterations in 13.7% of the cases. One mutational hit was present in 27%, and 2 hits were present in 45% of the tumors. No association was found between the type of NF2 mutation and relevant clinical parameters. The presence of NF2 mutations detected by PCR/dHPLC was associated with no complaint of hearing loss at the time of diagnosis (p = 0.023), with subjective aural fullness (p = 0.022) and with an absence of tumor involvement of the internal auditory canal (p = 0.029). Patients with NF2 mutations had lower mean corrected PTA thresholds compared with those with no NF2 mutation (p = 0.037). Inactivation of the NF2 gene by mutation, MLPA, or LOH was more frequent in smokers when compared with never smokers (p = 0.048).

Conclusion: NF2 mutations may play a role in the pathophysiology of hearing loss as well as in the pattern of growth of VS.