14 P < 0 05 28 5 23 82 14 P > 0 05 Clinical stage                

14 P < 0.05 28 5 23 82.14 P > 0.05 Clinical stage                

    Stage I 26 11 15 57.69   26 6 20 72.92   Stage II 14 11 3 21.43 P < 0.05 14 1 13 92.86 P > 0.05 Pathological differentiation                     well differentiated 24 6 18 75.00   24 7 17 70.83   moderately or poorly differentiated 16 12 4 25.00 P < 0.05 16 0 16 100.0 P < 0.05 P values represent multiple comparisons within groups PCR results The intensity (gray level) ratios of IGFBP-5/β-actin and cFLIP/β-actin PD-332991 were determined so as to represent the expression levels of IGFBP-5 and cFLIP mRNA. Larger ratios correlated with higher levels of expression of the target gene. Expression of IGFBP-5 were highest in the CIN stage II and III groups (1.0500 ± 0.0875), which were 4.94-fold higher than the relative expression levels of the normal group (0.2124 ± 0.0795) and 2.92-fold higher than those of the CC group (0.3600 ± 0.0575). The expression level in the CC group was in turn significantly higher than that of the normal group (P < 0.05) (Fig. 1). The highest expression of cFLIP mRNA was observed in the CC group (6.8874 ± 0.6663), which was 2.26-fold higher than that of the CIN stage II and III groups (3.0426 ± 0.0819). The lowest expression level was detected in the normal group (0.0246 ± 0.0100; P < 0.05) (Fig. 2 and ALK cancer Fig. 3). Figure 1 Expression of IGFBP-5 (154 bp,

A-lanes) and β-actin (540 bp, B-lanes) mRNA. M = Marker, A1 = Normal cervical tissues group, A2-5 respectively express CIN I, II, III, and cervical squamous cell carcinoma groups. Figure 2 Expression of cFLIP (226 bp, B-lanes) and β-actin (540 bp, A-lanes) mRNA. M = Marker, B1 = Normal cervical tissues group, B2–5 respectively express CIN I, II, III and cervical squamous cell carcinoma groups. Figure 3 Immunohistochemical detection of IGFBP-5 and cFLIP in patient tissues. A, Expression of IGFBP-5 in CIN I tissue: ++(×400); B, Expression of IGFBP-5 in CIN II tissue: +++ (×400); C, Expression of cFLIP

in cervical cancer tissue: ++ (×400). D, Expression of IGFBP-5 in cervical cancer tissue: – (×200). Discussion Amrubicin Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -I and IGF-II are important somatomedins in humans. Rather than moving freely through the blood and tissue fluids, these proteins bind to IGFBPs, mainly IGFBPs 1–6. IGFBPs inhibit the activity of IGF by tightly adhering to the ligand, though some binding proteins also activate the insulin-like growth factor [1]. Therefore, IGFBPs have recently received more recognition as potential tumor suppressors in the occurrence and development of tumors. IGFBP-5 can inhibit the proliferation of some tumor cells. It has been reported that the down-regulation of IGFBP-5 correlates with the formation of oral keratinocyte cell tumors and IGFBP-5 over-expression in renal granular-cell tumor and fibroblast cell lines [2].

aeruginosa PA2951 (etfA), PA3687 (ppc), PA3758 (nagA), PA1183 (d

aeruginosa. PA2951 (etfA), PA3687 (ppc), PA3758 (nagA), PA1183 (dctA), and PA1805 (ppiD) are homologous to genes previously shown to be essential in a limited number of bacterial species [20]. Interestingly, for the remaining 16 genes, no homologs have been reported as essential in other bacteria [20]. Among these, PA1709 (popD), coding for a subunit of the PopB/D translocon Roscovitine complex of the type III secretion-translocation

system (TTSS), is implicated in effector translocation across the host plasma membrane. Previous reports on P. aeruginosa PopD function [24–26] did not mention growth defects associated to deletion of popD gene. Therefore, the growth-impairing effects of S5A10 insert corresponding to PA1709 (Table 1) did not seem to match the PopD role characterized so far. These discrepancies could be due to differences in experimental conditions between our study and earlier works. We evaluated the set of 21 novel candidate essential genes for degree of conservation in Pseudomonas species according to the computationally-based analysis of orthologs of the Pseudomonas Genome Database [27] (Additional file 5: Table

S5). Interestingly, they are well-conserved in the sequenced Pseudomonas species, with the exceptions of PA5548 and PA1709 (popD) that are unique in P. aeruginosa. However, PA5548 and PA1709 (popD) orthologs buy Small molecule library can be found in other bacterial species. Remarkably, 17 of 21 novel essential candidates are conserved in all twelve sequenced P. aeruginosa genomes (Additional file 5: Table S5). Instead, PA2220 (oprR),

PA5264, PA1709 (popD) and PA3687 (ppc) are present in 3, 8, 9 and 10 of the sequenced genomes, respectively. Essential genes that are not fully conserved in all strains of a bacterial species can occur infrequently. As an example, the Escherichia coli genes ytfI, ypjF, ymfJ, ymfI and ymcD, coding for hypothetical proteins, were reported as essential in the K12-MG1655 strain [28, 29] and are conserved in only a limited number of the sequenced E. coli genomes [30]. Moreover, we compared the novel essential Decitabine candidates with a panel of “classical” essential genes that were not included in the Database of Essential Genes (DEG) [20] because of the occurence of Tn insertions in previous screenings in P. aeruginosa[9, 10, 23]. The Tn insertion patterns of the novel essential candidates (i.e. number of insertions and insertion site(s)- terminal vs internal; Additional file 5: Table S5) were similar to those of “classical” essential genes (Additional file 4: Table S4). This study also identified growth-impairing inserts carrying multiple genes. Because of their multigenic composition, the tagging of genes in these constructs for essentiality is not as direct as for single locus inserts (see above).

In several analyses, both the healthcare payer and societal persp

In several analyses, both the healthcare payer and societal perspectives were used,[33–40] whereas other studies were conducted from either a societal[41,42] or a healthcare payer

perspective.[43] EPZ 6438 Two studies adopted a ‘limited societal’ perspective, which excluded indirect costs but included out-of-pocket medical expenses along with other direct medical costs.[44,45] Some studies focused only on RIX4414,[36,37,42–44] while others also included indirect comparisons with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine[34,35,38,39,41,45] or, in some cases, the universal rotavirus vaccination program being evaluated allowed for the use of either RIX4414 or the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.[33,40,45] A wide range of results was reported across the cost-effectiveness analyses, which appears to be related, at least in part, to the substantial heterogeneity among the models used in the studies. The analyses typically showed that the cost of a universal rotavirus vaccination program was partly offset by reductions in RVGE-related healthcare resource use and that the program was associated with quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gains. However, the universal rotavirus vaccination program was deemed to be cost effective from the perspective of the healthcare payer only in some studies,[36,37,42,43] but not in others,[33–35,38–40,43]

when applying commonly reported cost-effectiveness thresholds, such as €20 000–50

000, $US50 GDC-0973 supplier 000, or £20 000–30 000 per QALY gained.[46–49] A consistent finding across studies that were conducted from both a healthcare payer and a societal (or ‘limited societal’) perspective was that incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were more favorable from a societal perspective,[33–40,43] as might be expected because additional costs associated with RVGE (e.g. out-of-pocket medical expenses and/or lost productivity of parents of children who develop RVGE) were included. Another consistent finding of the studies was that, compared with no universal vaccination program, ICER values for a two-dose oral series Phospholipase D1 of rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 were more favorable than those for a three-dose oral series of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine when cost effectiveness of the two vaccines was evaluated separately in the same study.[34,35,38,39,41,45] However, modelled analyses directly comparing the two vaccines would require head-to-head clinical trial data, which are currently lacking. In addition, there are inherent uncertainties in comparing ICER values of the available rotavirus vaccines because of the tender process that would be used to establish the vaccine price in a universal program. Although results of the cost-effectiveness analyses were sensitive to a number of parameters, which often varied between studies, there were also some common findings in the sensitivity analyses.

The group assignment in the last column is taken from a previous

The group assignment in the last column is taken from a previous study [18]. (PDF 75 KB) References 1. Dasti JI, Tareen AM, Lugert R, Zautner AE, Groß U: Campylobacter jejuni: a brief overview on pathogenicity-associated factors and disease-mediating mechanisms. Int J Med Microbiol 2010,300(4):205–211.PubMedCrossRef 2. Abbott JD, Dale B, Eldridge J, Jones DM, Sutcliffe EM: Serotyping of Campylobacter jejuni/coli. J

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Washington, D C : The National Academies Press; 2005 11 Steele

Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2005. 11. Steele R, Wall JS, De Bodo RC, Altszuler N: Measurement

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V, Landau BR, Waldhausl W, et al.: Direct and indirect effects of amino acids on hepatic glucose metabolism in humans. Diabetologia 2003, 46:917–925.PubMedCrossRef 19. Krebs M: Amino acid-dependent modulation of glucose metabolism in humans. Eur J Clin Invest 2005, 35:351–354.PubMedCrossRef 20. Promintzer M, Krebs

M: Effects of dietary protein on glucose homeostasis. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2006, 9:463–468.PubMedCrossRef 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase 21. Vogt C, Petrides AS: Stimulation of muscle glucose disposal by insulin in humans is a function of the preexisting plasma insulin level. Am J Physiol 1995, 268:E1031-E1038.PubMed Competing interests Nancy R. Rodriguez has received honorarium for participation in the speaker bureau for the NCBA and serves on the Protein Advisory Board for the NCBA. Remaining author(s) declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SMP participated in manuscript preparation, CSS, MAP, PCG, DRB, and BTB participated in data collection, statistical analysis, and manuscript preparation. NRR served as the principal investigator and contributed to study design, data collection, and manuscript preparation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Many investigators have sought to elucidate the hormonal response to feeding, as such an understanding may provide insight into important biological processes that occur in the postprandial state. Both the meal size [1, 2] and macronutrient type [3–5] may impact the hormonal response. Although this ensuing hormonal response may be important to a variety of individuals (e.g.

Stannard SR, Buckley AJ, Edge JA, Thompson MW: Adaptations to ske

Stannard SR, Buckley AJ, Edge JA, Thompson MW: Adaptations to skeletal muscle with endurance exercise training in the acutely fed versus overnight fasted state. J Sci Med Sport 2010, 13:465–469.PubMedCrossRef 14. Kirkendall DT, Chaouachi A, Aziz AR, Chamari K: Strategies for maintaining AP24534 manufacturer fitness and performance during Ramadan. J Sports Sci 2012, 30:103–108.CrossRef 15. Roy J, Hwa OC, Singh R, Aziz AR, Wen JS: Self-generated coping strategies among Muslim athletes during Ramadan fasting. J Sports Sci Med 2011,

10:137–144. 16. Deldicque L, De Bock K, Maris M, Ramaekers M, Nielens H, Francaux M, Hespel P: Increased p70 s6k phosphorylation during intake of a protein-carbohydrate drink following resistance exercise in the fasted state. Eur J Appl Physiol 2010, 108:791–800.PubMedCrossRef 17. Phillips SM, Van Loon LJC: Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to optimum adaptation. J Sports Sci 2011, 29:29–38.CrossRef

18. Tayebi SM, Niaki AG, Hanachi P, Ghaziani FG: The effect of Ramadan fasting and weight-lifting training on plasma volume, glucose and lipids profile of male weight-lifters. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2010, 13:57–62. 19. Tayebi SM, Hanachi P, Niaki AG, Ali PN, Ghaziani F: Ramadan fasting and weight-lifting training on vascular volumes and hematological profiles in young male weight-lifters. Global J health Sci 2010, 2:160–166. 20. Kraemer WJ, Fry AC: Strength Testing: Development and Evaluation of Methodology. In Physiological assessment of human fitness. Edited by: Maud PJ, Foster C. Champaign: Human Kinetics Books; 1995. 21. Borg G, Hassmen P, Lagerstrom AZD5363 nmr M: Perceived exertion in relation to heart rate and blood lactate during arm and leg exercise. Eur J Appl Physio 1987, 65:679–685.CrossRef 22. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA: Fundamentals of resistance training: Progression and exercise prescription. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004, 36:674–688.PubMedCrossRef 23. Norton K, Olds T: Anthropometrica. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press; 1996. 24. Durnin JVGA, Womersley J: Body fat assessed from total density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. British J Nutr Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase 1974, 32:77–97.CrossRef

25. Cockcroft DW, Gault MH: Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine. Nephron 1976, 16:31–41.PubMedCrossRef 26. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS: Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972, 18:499–502.PubMed 27. Kordi R, Abdollahi M, Memari AH, Najafabadi MG: Investigating two different training time frames during Ramadan fasting. As J Sports Med 2011, 2:205–210. 28. Stannard SR, Thompson MW: The effect of participation in Ramadan on substrate selection during submaximal cycling exercise. J Sci Med Sport 2008, 11:510–517.PubMedCrossRef 29. Slater G, Phillips SM: Nutrition guidelines for strength sports: Sprinting, weightlifting, throwing events, and bodybuilding.

1) (Aldrich, Steinheim, Germany), diluted in ethanol (VWR, Fonten

1) (Aldrich, Steinheim, Germany), diluted in ethanol (VWR, Fontenay-sous-Bois, France). Fig. 1 Chemical structures of a busulfan (1,4-butanediol

dimethanesulphonate), b diethyldithiocarbamate, and c dibromopentane The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system consisted of a quaternary pump (Merck Hitachi® L7100), an automatic injector (Merck Hitachi® L2200), an ultraviolet (UV) visible detector EPZ-6438 in vivo (Waters® 2487), and Multi HSM Manager software (Merck Hitachi®). The analysis was run using an Agilent Zorbax® SB C18 column (5 μm, 150 × 4.6 mm) (Agilent Technologies). The column was thermostatically controlled at 40 °C during use and then rinsed with a water (H2O)/methanol (50/50, v/v) mixture. Busulfan was detected by absorbance at 281 nm. In GDC-0973 solubility dmso isocratic mode, a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (ACN), H2O, and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (proportions: 650/350/1, v/v/v) was run through the system at a flow rate of 2 mL/min. 2.2 Sample Preparation,

Storage, and Processing Busulfan preparations were produced by diluting the product Busilvex® in 0.9 % NaCl to obtain a final concentration of 0.55 mg/mL (therapeutic concentration). The containers used for the preparations were PP syringes (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA; 50 mL, ref: 300865), EasyFlex® PVC bags (MacoPharma, Tourcoing, France) and 250-mL glass bottles containing 0.9 % NaCl (CDM Lavoisier, Paris, France). Busulfan solutions were then aliquoted into smaller containers so that the solutions remained under

the defined storage conditions throughout the evaluation period. These containers were 3-mL PP syringes (Becton Dickinson; ref: 300910), 50-mL EasyFlex® PVC bags (MacoPharma) and 2-mL glass bottles (Schott, St Gallen, Switzerland; ref: VCDIN2R) of borosilicate pharmaceutical Phospholipase D1 type I glass adapted for injections, fitted with chlorobutyl stoppers. The storage conditions for each of the containers were 2–8 °C, 13–15 °C (thermostatically controlled chamber), and, finally, RT (20 ± 5 °C). For each of the conditions (container and storage temperature), a sample was processed and analysed by HPLC-UV either every 6 h or every 3 h. Samples were processed in glass tubes because of the use of dimethylacetamide (DMA). To 0.5 mL of aliquot, we added 0.5 mL of DMA, followed by 0.1 mL of IS. After stirring, 1.0 mL of DMA and 0.5 mL of derivatization agent were added for a final volume of 2.6 mL. The solution was stirred a second time before being left to stand for 1 h at RT, the time required for derivatization prior to injection. A 30-μL test sample was then injected into the chromatographic system. 2.3 Transfer and Validation of Method We adapted the analytical method registered by Pierre Fabre Laboratories in the marketing authorization application. The validation of this method was conducted at our laboratory according to International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) topic Q2R guidelines [14].

Clin Microbiol Rev 2008, 21:243–261 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef <

Clin Microbiol Rev 2008, 21:243–261.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef selleckchem 29. Del Brutto OH, Mosquera A: Brainstem tuberculoma mimicking glioma: the role of antituberculous drugs as a diagnostic tool. Neurology 1999, 52:210–211.PubMedCrossRef 30. Jacobsen M, Repsilber D, Gutschmidt A, Neher A, Feldmann K, Mollenkopf

HJ, Ziegler A, Kaufmann SH: Candidate biomarkers for discrimination between infection and disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Mol Med (Berl) 2007, 85:613–621.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions CZ and ZDZ conceived the study. QLM, FL, XYY, XML, and XZ carried out the experiments. QLM wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background In marine ecosystems, nitrate (NO3 -)

serves as both a nitrogen source for assimilation and an electron acceptor for dissimilatory Selleck Adriamycin processes when oxygen (O2) is deficient. The latter scenario is ubiquitously encountered in anoxic sediment layers, but also prevails in the water bodies of oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the world’s oceans [1]. In denitrification, nitrate is sequentially reduced to dinitrogen , in dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), nitrate is sequentially reduced to ammonium and in anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), ammonium is oxidized by nitrite to form dinitrogen . These different metabolic pathways of dissimilatory or reduction were originally thought to only occur in prokaryotes [2–4]. Meanwhile, denitrification and Inositol monophosphatase 1 DNRA have been discovered in a limited set of eukaryotic microorganisms, including marine foraminifers [5, 6] and diatoms [7, 8]. Incomplete denitrification to nitrous oxide (N2O) has also been proven for plant-pathogenic and soil fungi, such as Fusarium oxysporum[9, 10], but so far

not for marine isolates. Additionally, a large number of fungal species, mainly belonging to Ascomycota, are capable of “ammonia fermentation”, a form of reduction to ammonium coupled to the fermentation of organic compounds [11]. Fungi are primarily aerobic heterotrophs, but some species, especially fermentative yeasts, can survive and grow under completely anoxic conditions. Nevertheless, both the abundance and the ecological role of fungi in O2-deficient marine environments are probably underestimated [12]. Recent sequencing approaches revealed a large diversity of marine microbial eukaryotes in environments where O2 occurs in low concentrations or is completely absent [13]. Additionally, it was found that fungal 18S rDNA sequences dominate the eukaryotic microbial communities in anoxic marine habitats (reviewed by [14]). Fungi retrieved from coastal marine sediments are dominated by Ascomycota that may be of terrestrial origin [15]. Amongst others, they are represented by Aspergillus species, including A. terreus[16].

The experiment was done three times b The RhoA GTP-loading data

The experiment was done three times. b The RhoA GTP-loading data was corroborated by indirect immunofluorescence-staining of cells on fibronectin-coated cover slips with anti-RhoA antibody (red) and photography at 630 x magnification. Growing cells exhibited membrane localization of RhoA (arrows) which disappeared in dormant cells. Blocking antibody to integrin α5β1 2 μg/ml induced re-localization of RhoA to the membrane, while blocking antibody to integrin α2β1 2 μg/ml had only a minimal effect. Nuclear DAPI staining is shown in blue To determine if the actin reorganization selleck products was dependent on RhoA inactivation, we transfected cells on fibronectin-coated cover slips with wild type,

constitutively active and dominant negative RhoA expression vectors and quantitated the percentage of transfected cells with cortical actin by indirect immunofluorescence. Cells were transiently co-transfected with a GFP vector and ten-fold excesses of the various RhoA expression vectors. Actin localization in green fluorescent cells was determined by rhodamine red phalloidin staining. Figure 4a demonstrates prototypical membrane localization of actin in GFP-only- and dominant negative RhoA 19N-transfected dormant cells and significantly diminished peripheral actin localization in

wild type- or constitutively active Rho 63L-transfected dormant cells. In the latter transfectants, the appearance of stress fibers became evident. The data, graphed in Fig. 4b, confirms once again the increase in the percentage of cells with cortically rearranged actin around more than 50% of the periphery from 9 + 0.7% of the growing cells click here to 80 + 2% of the dormant cells (p < 0.01). No significant differences were noted between mock transfected and GFP only-transfected dormant cells. Transfection of dormant cells with dominant negative RhoA 19N did not decrease the percentage of cells with cortical actin. However, transfection with constitutively active 63L and wild type RhoA decreased the percentage of cells with cortical actin to 24 + 2 (p < 0.001) and 10 + 4%, Plasmin (p < 0.02),

respectively. These data demonstrate that inactivation of RhoA is necessary to permit the acquisition of the dormant phenotype. To determine if inactivation of RhoA was sufficient to induce the state of dormancy, as defined by a spread cellular appearance and cortical actin redistribution, growing cells were transfected with dominant negative RhoA 19N vector. Figure 4c demonstrates that the cells did not acquire the characteristic appearance and did not develop cortically rearranged actin. Figure 4d demonstrates that there was no statistically significant increase in the percentage of cells with cortical actin between GFP only-transfected and RhoA 19N-transfected growing cells, nor did the cells acquire the typically large, spread out appearance of the dormant cells. Transfection with wild type and dominant negative vectors had no effect either, as expected (data not shown).

Swimming motility Each strain was incubated on LB agar plates for

Swimming motility Each strain was incubated on LB agar plates for 24 h at 28°C. Plates of LB medium solidified with 0.3% agar were inoculated by stabbing colonies with a toothpick and inserting the end of the toothpick selleck compound just below the surface of the agar. Three colonies were picked from three plates and incubated at 28°C until a migration halo appeared. Hemolysis

assay Hemolysis was performed essentially as described by Dacheux [25]. Sheep red blood cells (RBCs), obtained from Eurobio (France), were washed three times in PBS (pH 7.2, 0.8% NaCl, 0.02% KCl, 0.17% Na2HPO4, 0.8% KH2PO4) and resuspended in RPMI-1640 medium without pH indicator (Sigma) at a density of 5 × 108 RBCs mL-1 at 4°C. Bacteria were grown in LB to an OD580 nm of 0.7 – 1.5, centrifuged and resuspended in RPMI-1640 at 5 × 108 bacteria mL-1. Hemolysis assays were started by

mixing 100 μL of RBCs and 100 μL of bacteria, which were than centrifuged at 1500 g or 400 g for 10 minutes and incubated at 37°C for 1 h. The release of hemoglobin was measured at 540 nm, after centrifugation, in 100 μL of cell supernatant. Seliciclib datasheet The percentage (%) of total lysis was calculated as follows: % = [(X -B)/(T-B)] × 100, where B (baseline), a negative control, was corresponding to RBCs incubated with 100 μL of RPMI-1640, and T, a positive control, was corresponding to total RBCs lysis, obtained by incubating cells with 0.1% SDS. X is the OD value of the analysed sample. When indicated, Tangeritin RBCs were resuspended in 60 mM sterile solutions of osmoprotectant in RPMI-1640, to give a final concentration of 30 mM. For these experiments,

a control of hemoglobin precipitation in presence of PEG 4000 and PEG 3000 was realized [43]. PEG 3000 or 4000 were added to a RBCs lysis supernatant obtained after incubation with MFN1032 at a final concentration of 30 mM. No variation of hemoglobin OD value was observed in our conditions during incubation at 37°C for 1 h. Oligonucleotides and polymerase chain reactions MFN1032 and MF37 strains were resuspended in 500 μL sterile ultrapure water. The suspension (2 μL) was then used for PCR amplification of DNA from bacterial colonies. PCR was carried out in a 25 μL reaction volume, in a GeneAmp PCR system 2400 (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, USA). Each reaction mixture contained DNA, 0.25 μL Taq polymerase (Q-Biogen, Illkrirch, France), 2.5 μL corresponding buffer, 2.5 μL primers (20 μM) and 2 μL deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (2.5 mM). After initial denaturation for three minutes at 95°C, the reaction mixture was subjected to 35 cycles of 1 minute at 94°C, 1 minute at 41°C and two minutes at 72°C, followed by a final 3 minutes extension at 72°C.