The role of portal vein embolization (PVE) for colorectal metastasis is also expanding as it can increase the future liver remnant (FLR) by hypertrophy. By incorporating PVE, the recognized FLR of 20% of the native liver or 2 contiguous segments can be achieved when initial imaging of the metastatic lesion may preclude resection. While there is no study to date, for patients with underlying hepatic pathology after chemotherapy, there may be increased utility for PVE to increase the FLR to a larger threshold in order avoid the more established complications of patients with steatosis, steatohepatitis, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and SOS (80).
Just as PVE should be considered as an adjunctive preoperative therapy for patients with underlying parenchymal pathologies, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the methods of intraoperative vascular occlusion described above should also be INCB28060 ic50 examined. Experimental rodent models have expectedly shown that damaged livers with steatosis do not tolerate warm ischemia, potentially indicating that the pretreated liver with parenchymal damage may need special consideration to warranting ischemic preconditioning and less aggressive vascular occlusion techniques (81,82). Conclusion While hepatectomy for colorectal metastasis has the potential for significant blood loss requiring transfusions, a multifaceted paradigm in the perioperative Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical period can be used to minimize blood loss. By minimizing blood loss and subsequent transfusions, the nonspecific immunosuppressive
effects of allotransplantation of blood can be avoided and both perioperative and oncologic outcomes will be optimized. Coordinated efforts with medical oncologists, anesthesiologists,
and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the surgical teams are crucial in order to reach this goal. Acknowledgements The authors thank Dr. Eugenia Page, General Surgery Resident for her illustration. Footnotes No potential conflict of interest.
Approximately 23% to 51% of the 157,000 new colorectal cancer patients will present with synchronous colorectal cancer and liver metastasis (1). Surgical resection of all tumor sites is the only treatment that offers prolonged survival (2-4). However, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical optimal management of patients with synchronous colorectal hepatic metastasis is complex and must consider multiple factors, including the presence of symptoms, location of primary tumor and liver metastases, extent of tumor (both primary and metastatic), patient performance status, and underlying comorbidities. When faced with a patient with an asymptomatic primary colorectal Oxymatrine cancer, isolated hepatic metastases, and reasonable performance status, a primary consideration when formulating a possible surgical treatment plan involves assessment of resectability of the hepatic metastases. This select group of patients with asymptomatic primary tumors and isolated liver-only metastases can be classified into three groups: (I) diffuse, bilobar, unresectable liver metastases, (II) marginally resectable liver metastases and (III) clearly resectable hepatic metastases.