This case study illustrates that these two sets of processes are

This case study illustrates that these two sets of processes are not mutually exclusive and can affect abundance patterns in a scale-dependent manner. More importantly, the use of our methodology for future empirical studies should help in the merging of niche and neutral perspectives on beta

diversity, an obvious next step for community ecology.”
“Traumatic brain injury (TB!) results in a variable degree of cerebral atrophy that is not always related to cognitive measures across studies. However, the use of different methods for examining atrophy may be a reason why differences Apoptosis Compound Library in vitro exist. The purpose of this manuscript was to examine the predictive utility of seven magnetic resonance selleck compound imaging (MRI) – derived brain volume or indices of atrophy for a large cohort of TBI patients (n = 65). The seven quantitative MRI (qMRI) measures included uncorrected whole brain volume, brain volume corrected by total

intracranial volume, brain volume corrected by the ratio of the individual TICV by group TICV, a ventricle to brain ratio, total ventricular volume, ventricular volume corrected by TICV, and a direct measure of parenchymal volume loss. Results demonstrated that the various qMRI measures were highly interrelated and that corrected measures proved to be the most robust measures related to neuropsychological performance. Similar to an earlier study that examined cerebral atrophy in aging and dementia, these results suggest that a single corrected brain volume measure is all that is necessary in studies examining global MRI indicators of cerebral atrophy in relationship to cognitive

function making additional Entinostat ic50 measures of global atrophy redundant and unnecessary. (JINS, 2011, 17, 308-316)”
“The difficult performance of certain percutaneous interventions in the field of congenital heart disease is well known. Crossing pulmonary arteries in patients who have previously undergone surgical repair or stenotic pulmonary veins in infants can be typical examples of these technical challenges in the catheterization laboratory.\n\nThe Venture wire 6 Fr control catheter (St Jude Medical) is compatible with a steerable tapered radiopaque tip that can be manually angulated (up to 90 degrees) by clockwise rotation of a knob located in the proximal handle. This mechanism directs any 0.014″ guidewire and provides back-up support. This catheter has been successfully used in coronary artery intervention for crossing severely tortuous vessels, extreme angulations of side-branch ostia, jailed stents, saphenous vein graft anastomoses, and chronic total occlusions.\n\nWe report the first use of the Venture wire control catheter (St Jude Medical) in the field of congenital heart disease.

These results suggest that regular exercise may exhibit the great

These results suggest that regular exercise may exhibit the greatest effect on the normal functioning of these vasodilatory pathways, although diabetes and a sedentary state together may somewhat alter their relative importance.

(c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV) has been amplified from human prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patient samples. Other studies failed to replicate these findings and suggested PCR contamination with a prostate cancer cell line, 22Rv1, as a likely source. MLV-like sequences have also been detected in CFS patients in longitudinal samples 15 years apart. Here, we tested whether sequence data from these samples are consistent with viral evolution. Our phylogenetic analyses strongly reject a model of within-patient evolution and demonstrate that BLZ945 the sequences from the first

and second time points represent distinct endogenous murine retroviruses, suggesting contamination.”
“Hypoxemia caused by difficulties in airway management presents a major cause for perioperative morbidity and mortality. The ability to predict difficult laryngoscopy more accurately would enable anesthesiologists to take specific precautions to reduce airway risks and prevent patient-threatening events.\n\nOver a 6-year period of time, all anesthesia records with a documented direct laryngoscopic view were retrieved NVP-LDE225 cost from the electronic data management system and statistically processed. Sapitinib price The Cormack-Lehane four-point scale of grading laryngoscopy was used to assess visibility of the vocal cords.\n\nOf 102,306 cases, the overall rate of difficult laryngoscopy was 4.9 %. Male gender (6.5 %), Mallampati score III and IV (17.3 %), obesity with a BMI a parts per thousand yen35 kg/m(2) (6.1 %), as well as physical status ASA III or IV (6.2 %), were identified as risk factors for difficult laryngoscopy. Patients undergoing surgery in the departments of oromaxillofacial

(8.9 %), ear nose throat surgery (ENT) (7.4 %), and cardiac surgery (7.0 %) showed the highest rates of difficult laryngoscopy.\n\nThe results indicate that the risk for difficult airway situations might substantially differ between surgical patient groups. In hospitals with departmental structures and spatially separated operating rooms, the deduction might be increased awareness and particular structural preparation for difficult airway situations in the respective subspecialties.”
“Establishment of appropriate animal models is an important step in exploring the mechanisms of drug-induced ototoxicity. In the present study, using guinea pigs we compared cochlear lesions induced by cisplatin administered in two regimens: consecutive application alone and in combination with furosemide.

01) Following recent APM, people may adapt their gait to protect

01). Following recent APM, people may adapt their gait to protect the operated knee from excessive loads, as evidenced by a lower maximum loading rate in the APM leg compared to controls, and a reduced peak F-z in the APM leg compared to the non-APM leg. No differences at follow-up may suggest an eventual return to more typical gait. However, the increase in peak F-z in the APM leg may be of concern for long-term joint health given the compromised function of the meniscus. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: This study investigated the potential involvement of

Axl signaling in polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: Condition medium (CM) from OSCC cells (OEC-M1 and YD38) were collected and their effects

on macrophage Mocetinostat (THP-1) polarization were examined. Modulation of Axl, PI3/Akt, and NF-kappa B were performed find protocol to investigate their potential involvement in TAM polarization. Expression of pAxl and CD206 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in OSCC tissues. Results: THP-1 polarized to M2 phenotype with increasing expression of interleukins, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase and CD206 upon treatment with CM of OSCC. Activated Axl signaling in OSCC enhanced M2 induction ability. Suppression of Axl signaling and inhibition of PI3/Akt and NF-kappa B diminished M2 induction. pAxl expression was significantly associated with distribution of CD206

positive cells in OSCC tissues. Conclusion: Axl signaling of OSCC involved in polarizing TAMs toward M2 phenotype. Induction of M2 phenotype macrophage polarization by OSCC cells might involve the Axl/PI3/Akt/NF-kappa B pathway. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The glucagonlike peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) is mainly expressed on beta-cells in the Wets of Langerhans and is therefore an attractive target for imaging of the beta-cell mass. In the present study, Ga-68-labeled exendin-4 was evaluated for PET imaging and quantification of GLP-1R in the pancreas. Methods: Dose see more escalation studies of Ga-68-labeled 1,4,7-tris(carboxymethylaza)cyclododecane-10-azaacetyl (DO3A)-exendin-4 were performed in rats (organ distribution) and cynomolgus monkeys (PET/CT imaging) to determine the GLP-1R-specific tissue uptake in vivo. Pancreatic uptake (as determined by organ distribution) in healthy rats was compared with that in diabetic rats. GLP-1R occupancy in the cynomolgus pancreas was quantified with a 1-tissue-compartment model. Results: In rodents, uptake in the pancreas was decreased from the baseline by up to 90% (P < 0.0001) by coadministration of DO3A-exendin-4 at 100 mu g/kg. Pancreatic uptake in diabetic animals was decreased by more than 80% (P < 0.001) compared with that in healthy controls, as measured by organ distribution. GLP-1R occupancy in the cynomolgus pancreas after coinjection of DO3A-exendin-4 at 0.

Some recent applications of surface modification technology on th

Some recent applications of surface modification technology on the materials for cardiovascular devices were also discussed for better understanding. Finally, the current trend of the CB, endothelization of the cardiac implants and

utilization of induced human pluripotent stem cells (ihPSCs), is also presented in this review. The field of CB is growing constantly and many new investigators and researchers are developing interest in this domain. This review will serve as a one stop arrangement to quickly grasp the basic research in the field of CB.”
“The N-terminal regulatory part of DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) contains a replication foci learn more targeting sequence (RFTS) domain, which is involved in the recruitment of Dnmt1 to replication forks. The RFTS domain has been observed in a crystal Rabusertib structure to bind to the catalytic domain of the enzyme and block its catalytic centre. Removal of the RFTS domain led to activation of Dnmt1, thus suggesting an autoinhibitory role of this domain. Here, we destabilised the interaction of the RFTS domain with the catalytic domain by site-directed mutagenesis and purified the corresponding Dnmt1 variants. Our data show that these mutations resulted in an up to fourfold increase in Dnmt1 methylation

activity in vitro. Activation of Dnmt1 was not accompanied by a change in its preference for methylation of hemimethylated CpG sites. We also show that the Dnmt1 E572R/D575R variant has a higher DNA methylation activity in human cells after transfection into HCT116 cells, which are hypomorphic for Dnmt1. Our findings strongly support the autoinhibitory role of the RFTS domain, and indicate that it contributes to the regulation of Dnmt1 activity in cells.”
“Background. Emerging evidence indicates that C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is a candidate oncogene in several types of human tumors including renal cell carcinoma

(RCC). We conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the association of CXCR4 expression with the incidence of RCC and clinicopathological characteristics. Methods. We Proteasome activity searched PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge to identify studies written in English. Methodological quality of the studies was also evaluated. Odds ratio and hazard ratio were calculated and summarized. Results. Final analysis was performed of 994 RCC patients from 11 eligible studies. We observed that CXCR4 expression was significantly higher in RCC than in normal renal tissues. CXCR4 expression was not found to be associated with sex status or clinical staging. However, CXCR4 expression was clearly associated with Fuhrman grading, metastatic status, and overall survival in RCC patients. Conclusions. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that CXCR4 expression is associated with an increased risk and worsen survival in RCC patients. The aberrant CXCR4 expression plays an important role in the carcinogenesis and metastasis of RCC.

Stronger interaction is

also achieved in the phosphate-bi

Stronger interaction is

also achieved in the phosphate-binding site. The triphosphate group of MANT-ITP exhibits better metal coordination than the triphosphate group of MANT-GTP, as confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. Collectively, the subtle differences in ligand structure have profound effects on affinity for mAC.”
“Objectives: New-onset diabetes in pancreatic adenocarcinoma is due to a combination of insulin resistance and decreased A-cell function. Its differentiation from the common type 2 diabetes is the prerequisite for early diagnosis AZD2014 of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Little attention has been paid to pancreatic stroma and surface proteases.\n\nMethods: The activated fibroblasts selectively express fibroblast activation protein alpha , a structural homolog of the ubiquitously

expressed dipeptidyl peptidase 4. Their role in pancreatic carcinogenesis is reviewed.\n\nResults: Homodimers and heterodimers of both enzymes display high specificity for peptides and proteins with penultimate proline or alanine. Most glucose-homeostatic agents are candidate substrates of these enzymes. The biological activity of truncated substrates is decreased or absent.\n\nConclusions: The interactions of surface proteases with glucose-homeostatic agents may adequately explain the evolution of diabetes associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and differentiate it from the common type 2 diabetes.”
“Background Myosin MCC950 mw light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) govern myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation and smooth muscle contraction. Rho kinase (ROK) inhibits MLCP, resulting in greater LC20 phosphorylation and force generation at a given [Ca(2+)](i). Here, we investigate the role of ROK in regulating LC20 phosphorylation and spontaneous contractions of gastric fundus, gastric antrum, and proximal colon smooth muscles. Methods selleck chemicals llc Protein and phosphorylation levels were determined by western blotting. The effects of Y27632, nicardipine, and GF109203X on

phosphorylation levels and contraction were measured. Key Results gamma-Actin expression is similar in all three smooth muscles. LC20 and pS19 are highest, but ROK1 and ROK2 are lowest, in antrum and proximal colon smooth muscles. LZ+/- myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1), CPI-17, and pT696, pT853, and pT38 are highest in fundus and proximal colon smooth muscles. Myosin phosphatase-rho interacting protein (M-RIP) expression is lowest in fundus, and highest in antrum and proximal colon smooth muscles. Y27632 reduced pT853 in each smooth muscle, but reduced pT696 only in fundus smooth muscles. Nicardipine had no effect on pT38 in each smooth muscle, while GF109203X reduced pT38 in proximal colon and fundus smooth muscles. Y27632 or nicardipine reduced pS19 in proximal colon and fundus smooth muscles. Y27632 or nicardipine inhibited antrum and proximal colon smooth muscle spontaneous contractions, but only Y27632 reduced fundus smooth muscle tone.

5 (E11 5) in mouse Using a machine-learning approach to integrat

5 (E11.5) in mouse. Using a machine-learning approach to integrate the data from different contexts, I found that E11.5 heart enhancers can often be predicted accurately from data from other contexts, and I quantified the contribution AZD9291 nmr of each data source to the predictions. The utility of each dataset correlated with nearness in developmental time and tissue to the target context: data from late

developmental stages and adult heart tissues were most informative for predicting E11.5 enhancers, while marks from stem cells and early developmental stages were less informative. Predictions based on data collected in non-heart tissues and in human hearts were better than random, but worse than using data from mouse hearts. Conclusions: The ability of these algorithms to accurately

predict developmental enhancers based on data from related, but distinct, cellular contexts suggests that combining computational models selleck kinase inhibitor with epigenetic data sampled from relevant contexts may be sufficient to enable functional characterization of many cellular contexts of interest.”
“The effect on hydraulic conductivity in porous media of CaCO3 precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii (ATCC 11859) was investigated using continuous-flow columns containing glass beads between 0.01 mm and 3 mm in diameter. Resting S. pasteurii cells and a precipitation solution composed of 0.5 M CaCl2 and 0.5 M urea were

introduced into the columns, and it was shown that the subsequent formation of CaCO3 precipitation reduced hydraulic conductivity from between 8.38 x 10(-1) and 3.27 x 10(-4) cm/s to between 3.70 x 10(-1) and 3.07 x 10(-5) cm/s. The bacterial KU-57788 in vitro cells themselves did not decrease the hydraulic conductivity. The amount of precipitation was proportional with the bacterial number in the column. The specific CaCO3 precipitation rate of the resting cells was estimated as 4.0 +/- 0.1 x 10(-3) mu g CaCO3/cell. Larger amounts of CaCO3 precipitation were deposited in columns packed with small glass beads than in those packed with large glass beads, resulting in a greater reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of the columns containing small glass beads. Analysis using the Kozeny-Carman equation suggested that the effect of microbially induced CaCO3 precipitation on hydraulic conductivity was not due to the formation of individual CaCO3 crystals but instead that the precipitate aggregated with the glass beads, thus increasing their diameter and consequently decreasing the pore size in the column. (C) 2014, The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. All rights reserved.”
“We recently developed a clinical grade ex vivo cord blood expansion procedure enabling a massive amplification of hematopoietic progenitors without any loss of stem cell potential.

However, 86% (173 out of 202) would accept treatment that improve

However, 86% (173 out of 202) would accept treatment that improved QoL without prolongation of life. When asked what was most important, 33% (67 out of 201) said QoL, 9% (19 out of 201) length of life and 57% (115 out of 201) said both were equally important.\n\nConclusion: Clinicians’ and patients’ experiences, expectations and priorities about OC management may differ.”
“This phase II, randomised, double-blind, multicentre study (NCT00930982) investigated the safety and efficacy of ciprofloxacin dry powder for inhalation (DPI) in patients with non-cystic fibrosis

bronchiectasis.\n\nAdults who were culture positive for pre-defined AMN-107 manufacturer potential respiratory pathogens (including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Haemophilus influenzae) were randomised to ciprofloxacin DPI 32.5 mg or placebo administered twice daily for

28 days (with 56 days of follow-up). Bacterial density in sputum (primary end-point), pulmonary function tests, health-related quality of life and safety were monitored throughout SB273005 molecular weight the study.\n\n60 subjects received ciprofloxacin DPI 32.5 mg and 64 received placebo. Subjects on ciprofloxacin DPI had a significant reduction (p<0.001) in total sputum bacterial load at the end of treatment (-3.62 log(10) CFU.g(-1) (range -9.78-5.02 log(10) CFU.g(-1))) compared with placebo (-0.27 log(10) CFU.g(-1) (range -7.96-5.25 log(10) CFU.g(-1))); the counts increased thereafter. In the ciprofloxacin DPI group, 14 (35%) out of 40 subjects reported pathogen eradication at end of treatment versus four (8%) out of 49 in the placebo group (p=0.001). No abnormal safety results

were reported and rates of bronchospasm were low.\n\nCiprofloxacin DPI 32.5 mg twice daily for 28 days was well tolerated and achieved significant reductions in total bacterial load compared with placebo in subjects with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.”
“Epsilon-toxin (epsilon-toxin), produced by Clostridium perfringens type D, is the main agent responsible for enterotoxaemia in livestock. Neurological disorders are a characteristic of the onset of toxin poisoning. epsilon-Toxin accumulates specifically in the central nervous system, where it produces a glutamatergic-mediated excitotoxic effect. However, no detailed study of putative binding structures in the nervous tissue has been carried out to date. Here we attempt to identify specific acceptor moieties and cell targets for epsilon-toxin, not only in the mouse nervous system but also in the brains of sheep and cattle. An epsilon-toxin-GFP fusion protein was produced and used to incubate brain sections, which were then analyzed by confocal microscopy. The results clearly show specific binding of epsilon-toxin to myelin structures.

Given that in nature host populations face selection pressures fr

Given that in nature host populations face selection pressures from multiple parasite strains and species, our results suggest that costs may be even more critical in shaping the evolution HSP tumor of resistance

than previously thought. Furthermore, our results highlight that a better understanding of resistance costs under combined control strategies could lead to a more ‘evolution-resistant’ treatment of disease.”
“In this study, the non-catalytic supercritical method has been studied in utilizing dimethyl carbonate. It was demonstrated that, the supercritical dimethyl carbonate process without any catalysts applied, converted triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters with glycerol carbonate and citramalic acid as by-products, while free fatty acids were converted to fatty acid methyl

esters with glyoxal. After 12 min of reaction at 350 degrees C/20 MPa, rapeseed oil treated with HSP990 nmr supercritical dimethyl carbonate reached 94% (w/w) yield of fatty acid methyl ester. The by-products from this process which are glycerol carbonate and citramalic acid are Much higher in value than glycerol produced by the conventional process. In addition, the yield of the fatty acid methyl esters as biodiesel was almost at par with supercritical methanol method. Therefore, supercritical dimethyl carbonate process can be a good candidate as an alternative biodiesel production process. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The time trends of gastric and duodenal ulcer disease are shaped by a birth-cohort phenomenon.\n\nThe aim of this study was to assess the extent by which a birth-cohort phenomenon also affected the long-term time trends of gastric cancer among different European countries.\n\nMortality data from France, AZ 628 cell line Germany, Netherlands, Scotland, Spain, and Sweden of the past 56-85 years were analyzed. The age-specific death rates were plotted against the period of death as period-age contours and against the period of birth as cohort-age contours.\n\nThe long-term time trends of gastric cancer mortality were found to have risen

among generations born during the 18th century until the mid-19th century and then to have declined in all subsequent generations. The rise and fall of gastric cancer preceded similar birth-cohort patterns of gastric and duodenal ulcer by about 10-30 years. With the exception of gastric cancer in Germany, similar birth-cohort phenomena were found in all countries, as well as in men and women.\n\nThe time trends of mortality from gastric cancer and peptic are shaped by birth-cohort patterns that have affected all countries of Europe. It remains an enigma why mortality associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer suddenly started to rise within a short time period during the 19th century.”
“Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the most common clinical subgroup of sero-negative spondyloarthropathies.

After adjustment for the sex and treatment, only factor 2 and

After adjustment for the sex and treatment, only factor 2 and

factor 4 remained significantly associated with postprandial glycemic values (p=0.003 and p<0.001), indicating that the postprandial glycemia is best predicted by a multiple regression that included body mass index, waist circumference, tryglicerides and HbAlc as independent variables (r=0.54, p<0.001).\n\nConclusion. The results of our study shows that low body mass index and waist circumference, high triglycerides and HbAlc levels are independently associated with postprandial glucose excursions.”
“The selleck chemicals llc number of therapeutic modalities available to the hand surgeon has greatly increased over the past several decades. A field once predicated only on heat, massage, and cold therapy now uses electrical stimulators, ultrasound, biofeedback, iontophoresis, phonophoresis, mirror therapy, lasers, and a number of other modalities. With this expansion in choices, there has been a concurrent effort to better define which modalities are truly effective. In this review, we aim to characterize the commonly used modalities and provide the evidence available that supports their continued use. (J Hand Surg 2012;37A:597-621. Copyright (C) 2012

by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. All rights reserved.)”
“As observed by Intrigila [16], there are hardly techniques available in the lambda-calculus to prove that two lambda-terms are not beta-convertible. Techniques employing the usual Bohm Trees are inadequate when we deal with terms having the same Bohm Tree (BT). This is the case in particular for fixed point combinators, as Selleck R788 they all have the same BT. Another interesting equation, whose consideration was suggested by Scott [24], is BY = BYS, an equation valid in the classical model P omega of lambda-calculus, WZB117 in vivo and hence valid with respect to BT-equality = BT, but nevertheless the terms are beta-inconvertible. To prove such beta-inconvertibilities, we employ ‘clocked’ BT’s, with annotations that convey information of the tempo in which the data in the BT are produced. Bohm Trees are thus enriched with an intrinsic clock behaviour, leading to a refined discrimination

method for lambda-terms. The corresponding equality is strictly intermediate between = beta and = BT, the equality in the model P omega. An analogous approach pertains to Levy-Longo and Berarducci Trees. Our refined Bohm Trees find in particular an application in beta-discriminating fixed point combinators (fpc’s). It turns out that Scott’s equation BY = BYS is the key to unlocking a plethora of fpc’s, generated by a variety of production schemes of which the simplest was found by Bohm, stating that new fpc’s are obtained by postfixing the term SI, also known as Smullyan’s Owl. We prove that all these newly generated fpc’s are indeed new, by considering their clocked BT’s. Even so, not all pairs of new fpc’s can be discriminated this way.

Our data confirm that the TRIB3 R84 variant affects glucose h

\n\nOur data confirm that the TRIB3 R84 variant affects glucose homeostasis and suggest this effect is due to an alteration of the interplay between insulin sensitivity and secretion.”
“The development of safe, immunogenic and protective cholera vaccine candidates makes possible their use as a versatile antigen delivery platform. Foreign antigens can be delivered to the immune system with cholera vaccines by expressing heterologous antigens in live attenuated vectors, as fusion proteins with cholera toxin subunits combined with inactivated Vibrio cholerae whole cells or by exposing them on the surface of V. cholerae ghosts.

Progress selleckchem in our understanding of the genes expressed by V. cholerae during infection creates unprecedented opportunities to develop an improved generation of vaccine vectors to induce immune protection against a broad range of pathogenic organisms.”
“The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated epithelial lesions is substantially higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals

than in HIV-uninfected individuals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the increased risk of HPV infection in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. We found that HIV proteins tat and gp120 were expressed within the oral and anal mucosal epithelial microenvironment of HIV-infected individuals. Expression of HIV proteins in the mucosal epithelium was correlated with the disruption of epithelial tight junctions (TJ). Treatment of polarized oral, cervical and anal epithelial cells, and oral tissue explants with tat and gp120 led to disruption of epithelial TJ and increased HPV pseudovirion (PsV) paracellular penetration in to the epithelium. PsV entry

was observed in the basal/parabasal cells, the cells in Which the HPV life cycle is initiated. Our data suggest that HIV-associated TJ disruption of mucosal epithelia may potentiate HPV infection and subsequent development of HPV-associated neoplasia. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background Previous clinical and basic research of axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF) all focused on the Omipalisib L5/S1. However, there is no data on the feasibility of this approach for the fusion of both L4/5 and L5/S1. This study aimed to explore whether transsacral axial interbody fusion is a candidate for the fusion of both L4/5 and L5/S1.\n\nMethods The subjects (n=40) underwent lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The median sagittal MRI images were analyzed and five measurement markers were defined as follows: the center of the L4/5 disc (A), the center of the L5/S1 disc (B), the anterior margin of the S1/2 space (C), the sacrococcygeal junction (D), and the coccygeal tip (E). The measurement markers were connected each other to produce nine lines (AB, AC, AD, AE, BC, BD, BE, CD and CE) as the reference lines for surgical approaches.