, 2009) In short, it is obvious that this anthropometric charact

, 2009). In short, it is obvious that this anthropometric characteristic allows them to cover the wider space of the goal and hence always find useful information to defend the net more successfully. Because of the constant contact during the game, Centers are known to be the largest of all players in terms of body length and body mass. Therefore, it was not surprising that, although similar to the Points and Goalkeepers in BH, the Centers are the heaviest and have the highest BMI of all five playing positions. Apparently, their increased BM and BMI are partially but not entirely related to increased body fat (i.e. Centers have higher skinfolds than the Goalkeepers and Wings, but there is no significant difference in any of the body fat measures between the Centers, Points and Drivers).

This is in line with previous findings where authors discussed the clear need for a Center��s morphological-anthropometric dominance in terms of advanced BM, especially against rival Points (M. Lozovina, et al., 2009). More precisely, these two playing-positions are direct opponents (i.e. the Point guards the offensive Center) and if a Center wants to be effective in his/her offensive tasks, he/she must be physically superior to the defensive player guarding him (her). Although previous studies rarely studied water polo goalkeepers with regard to their anthropometric status, the results of the Goalkeepers�� anthropometric variables did not surprise us. Most particularly, they are slightly, although not significantly dominant in AS, and have the lowest BMI of all players.

Such an anthropometric profile allows them to cover the net efficiently (because of their large arm span) and to change position quickly (because of their low BMI). Since the official rules of water polo protect Goalkeepers from the contact-game, their low BMI is clearly a function of their agile movement and quick positioning in front of the goal with regard to offensive actions and his/her team��s defensive tactics. The importance of the specific physical fitness profile of different playing positions is already recognized in team sports (Ben Abdelkrim et al., 2010; Markovic and Mikulic, 2011; Pyne et al., 2006), but such studies are evidently scarce in water polo, especially among junior players. Therefore, the results of the specific physical fitness tests we presented above are hardly comparable to previous findings.

Although the playing positions did not differ significantly in the lactate capacity (4x50m) and 100m swimming results, the swimming performance Dacomitinib measured by swimming 25m (ATPCP capacity), and 400m (aerobic capacity) revealed the Points to be the best swimmers. According to previous studies, the background to such findings should be identified through anthropometric profiles. In a recent study where authors identified the optimal morphological/anthropometric characteristics of young competitive swimmers, Sekulic et al.

However, there is no published study concerning this matter

However, there is no published study concerning this matter www.selleckchem.com/products/Vorinostat-saha.html in classical ballet dancers. For this reason, we decided to examine whether adding a supplementary low intensity aerobic training program to regular dance practice would improve VO2max and psychomotor performance in classical ballet dancers. Material and Methods Subjects Six professional female ballet dancers volunteered for the study. All the subjects started dancing at 9 years of age and were subjected to regular dance training for at least 12 years. During their work as members of the corps de ballet (including at least two years immediately preceding the study) they danced on the average about 6 times (a total of 24 h) per week. They had not been involved in other forms of regular physical activity.

After being informed about the purpose of the study, all the subjects signed a written consent to participate in the study. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland. All the volunteers were clinically healthy and in good nutritional status, and their habitual diet was assessed with the use of a questionnaire. The dancers recorded their food intake over a 3-day period just before the commencement of exercise tests, and the daily records were analyzed for energy and macronutrients intake using a computer program Dietus (B.U.I. InFit 1995, Poland). Basic anthropometric characteristics of the subjects are presented in Table 1.

Table 1 Basic anthropometric characteristics of the studied subjects Study design The experimental protocol consisted of anthropometric measurements, a psychomotor performance test and graded exercise test for the evaluation of VO2max and anaerobic threshold (AT). All anthropometric measurements, the psychomotor performance test and exercise test were performed both prior to the beginning of aerobic training (pre-T) and following a 6-week supplementary aerobic training (post�CT). Body composition was assessed using bio-electrical impedance (Tanita body composition analyzer TBF-300). All subjects cycled on a 828 Monark (Sweden) ergometer with intensity increasing by 30 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. Minute ventilation (Ve) and oxygen uptake (VO2) were analyzed continuously (breath-by-breath) for 1 min at rest and at the third minute of each workload using standard technique of open-circuit spirometry (Yeager).

Heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously using a PE 3000 Sport Tester (Polar Electro, Finland). To determine the anaerobic threshold, fingertip capillary blood samples for lactate concentration assessment were taken at rest, at the third minute of each workload, and at the fifth minute of Dacomitinib post-exercise recovery. Blood lactate concentration was measured by the standard enzymatic method using commercial kits (Boehringer-Mannheim, Germany) and a model UV-1201 UV/VIS Shimadzu spectrophotometer.

Assertiveness is that ��use of legitimate, acceptable physical fo

Assertiveness is that ��use of legitimate, acceptable physical force and the expenditure of an unusually high degree of effort to achieve an external goal, with no intent to injure�� (Kent, 2005) and ��sometimes showing a self-confident approach�� (Cashmore, 2008). This might be a kind www.selleckchem.com/products/3-deazaneplanocin-a-dznep.html of vitality (zest) which was suggested by Park and Petersen (2004) as approaching life with energy and excitement. Therefore, exemplars of assertiveness�� items related to sport courage measured by SCS incorporate ��I like to take the initiative in the face of difficulties in my sport��, ��I assert myself even when facing hazardous situations in my sport��. The fourth factor of SCS is VS. Above definitions of courage emphasized that one distinction of courage is relatively high risk taking behaviour which must be present in sport situations.

Risk is from the Italian ��risco�� for ��danger��, risk means exposure to jeopardy. It is a word that crops up a lot. In all sports, athletes often run risks; in some, they put their lives at risk (e.g., extreme sports). Exercise itself is a form of health risk management. So, sport and exercise are full of risk factors (Cashmore, 2008). While there may be economic risks associated with sport (e.g., gambling) and social risks (risk of one��s reputation and social status) of central concern has been the risk of physical injury (and death). A ��culture of risks�� in sport has been indentified largely in the context of the wide spread acceptance of playing through pain and injury (Malcolm, 2008).

Therefore, it could be argued that courage involves relatively high risk situations (perceived by the athlete) rather than an ordinary sport life. It might be suggested that courage is not fearlessness. Rather, it is coping with fear in the face of high risks or dangers. Therefore, VS involves coping with fear. Fear may be no more than the brief thoughts of physical injury that flash through the minds of rugby (or soccer) full back��s fleeting image of another broken nose as he prepares to dive on the ball at the feet of opposing players. In some sports the merest hind of fear might be enough to end careers. All players have doubts and fears, although some may be good at hiding them. Everyone is human and susceptible to fear, fatigue, and indecision (Karageorghis and Terry, 2011).

The result of present research supports the studies related to coping with fear and courageous behaviour (Corlett, 2002; Kilmann et al., 2010; Konter et al., 2013; Martin, 2011; Woodard and Pury, 2007). Fear is ��an emotion associated with Brefeldin_A an actual impending danger or evil��. It is often characterized by the subjective experience of discomfort and arousal. Fear can induce a kind of paralysis in some competitors so that they freeze in the face of a forbidding rival. It can also act as a friend causing exhilaration that facilitates optimum performance�� (Cashmore, 2008).

Correlation coefficients with the multi-item variable length of t

Correlation coefficients with the multi-item variable length of the jump were considerably reduced. A statistically significant value of the correlation coefficient (r=0.39; p=0.05) was found only in the sixth jump. The value of the total variance (TV=50.13%) in the first common factor was calculated and it slightly exceeded the value of 50%, thus selleck chemicals llc providing the minimum criteria for a satisfactory relationship with the multi-item variable length of the jump. A significant reduction in the value of the correlation coefficients indicates a complex relationship of the performance of ski jumpers. During flight, a jumper must optimise the angle between the leg and ski, where it is important to conduct a sufficiently integrated complex system of rotation of the body and skis, which will truly take advantage of favourable aerodynamic forces during the take-off and establish the optimum position for the flight phase.

The aerodynamic aspect of take-off strongly determines the position of the skis. The research results show entirely low and statistically insignificant correlations between the multi-item variables, the angle between left and right ski, the horizontal axis, and the length of the jumps. The values of total variance in the first common factor do not reach 50%. The factor weights on the first factor are fairly homogeneous but negative. The most favourable aerodynamic position is where the skis are in a horizontal position during the early flight phase. The study of Virmavirta et al.

(2005) showed that Simon Amman (Olympic champion 2002) had skis perfectly horizontally positioned during the early flight in his victories, and that this enabled him to maintain the highest possible horizontal flight speed. Displacement of the skis from that position increases the aerodynamic drag of the skis and reduces the speed of the jumper during the early flight phase. Generally, the position of the skis during the early flight phase was similar. The average value between the seven rounds of the jumps was varied by about two angular degrees. Slightly higher mean values were generally found at the position of the right ski. No determination of significant correlation coefficients of the multi-item variable angle of hip extension and the criteria multi-item variable length of the jump was found. Based on the structure of factor weights in the first common factor, a slight positive correlation was shown.

Generally, the jumpers who had longer jumps had a slightly more stretched body position at the early flight phase. A more or less stretched body position can have a negative impact on the aerodynamic aspect in the middle part of the flight. In both cases, the positive influence of aerodynamic Drug_discovery forces and their moments can be lowered. This again underlines the aerodynamic aspect of the flight phase. For some time, the so-called flat style of flying (Flat Style) was in use.

The warm-up procedures (dry and in-water) consisted of their typi

The warm-up procedures (dry and in-water) consisted of their typical figure 1 warm-up frequently performed before a competitive swimming event (total volume: 1000 m). After 10 min rest, the tethered swimming protocol was implemented. One day after, the same protocol was repeated, but without warming up. The swimmers were wearing a belt attached to a steel cable (negligible elasticity). As the force vector in the tethered system presented a small angle to the horizontal, computing the horizontal component of force, data was corrected. A load-cell system connected to the cable was used as a measuring device, recording at 100 Hz with a measure capacity of 5000 N. The data obtained was transferred by a Globus Ergometer data acquisition system (Globus, Italy) that exported the data in ASCII format to a computer.

Individual force to time F (t) curves were assessed and registered to obtain maximum force (Fmax, the highest value of force produced in first 10 s) absolute and relative values and; mean force (Fmean �C average force values during the 30s test) absolute and relative values. The test started after an acoustic signal, with the swimmers in a horizontal position, with the cable fully extended. The data collection started after the first stroke cycle to avoid the inertial effect of the cable extension after the first propulsion. The swimmers swam as natural as possible during 30 s, at maximum intensity. Additionally, capillary blood samples were collected from the fingertip before and after each tethered swimming (at the 1st and 3rd min of recovery) to access the higher values of blood lactate concentration ([La-]) (Accutrend Lactate?Roche, Germany).

The values of [La-]net were determined by the difference between [La-] after the test and the resting values. The Borg (1998) ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was used to quantify exercise level of exertion after each test. Statistics Standard statistical methods were used for calculation of means and standard deviations. Normality was determined by Shapiro-Wilk test. Since, the very low value of the N (i.e., N < 30) and the rejection of the null hypothesis (H0) in the normality assessment, non-parametric procedures were adopted. In order to compare the data obtained with and without warm-up, non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used. Differences were considered significant for p �� 0.05.

Results Table 1 presents the mean �� SD values for the tethered absolute variables, namely the maximum force and mean force. Significant differences were evident for the data obtained on tethered front crawl swimming test after warm-up and without warm-up. The warm-up condition presented higher values. Cilengitide Table 1 Mean �� SD values of maximum (Fmax) and mean forces (Fmean) exerted during the tethered swimming test. P-values are presented Figure 1 presents relative values of the maximum and mean forces in both conditions.

The use of small-sided games and inferiority games should be rega

The use of small-sided games and inferiority games should be regarded as a simplification of the real game (less selleckbio players, adapted spaces). This is a way of improving technique and tactics, as well as increasing physiological and psychological capacities of players, since the intensity of the exercise can be manipulated, with implications at the level of decision-making and of the visual patterns (Vaeyens et al., 2007). Despite the crucial role of small-sided games in the coaching process, confirmed by the results of this study and well documented in recent scientific literature (Hill-Haas et al., 2008), very few studies are available on the importance of superiority or inferiority games. More importantly, literature is scarce when we try to establish a proper rationale between these items and the needs of futsal players�� development.

Usually, defensive superiority games, such as 1vs2 or 2vs3, are complex game-like situations, which are related with the development of team defensive strategies and therefore, more specific to higher levels of competition (Leite et al., 2011). For these reasons, it is not difficult to understand the lower results obtained in this item, especially those corresponding to novice and intermediate coaches. The results of this study seem to indicate that futsal, as a relatively recent sport, is at a development stage that is closer to the integrated training concept (Sanz and Guerrero, 2005), than to the traditional approaches to teaching/learning in team sports, such as basketball, primarily focused in the development of technique (Rink, 2001) and confirmed by the studies of Leite et al.

(2011) with basketball coaches. Under the current methodology, futsal coaches seem to use more often drills that demand and highlight game intelligence (perception �C analysis �C decision) (Sanz and Guerrero, 2005). Leite et al. (2011) recognized that recent expansion of tactical-dominant models contributed to redefine team sports teaching/learning. In this particular approach, players are stimulated to develop tactical awareness and therefore, skill execution is permanently connected with the players�� performance in game-like situations. Consequently, the foundations of this model suggest that in early stages players should be confronted with tactical problems, helping them to develop their comprehension of the game and leading them to understand the need to optimize their skills in a game environment (Turner and Martinek, 1995).

The results of this study did not confirm the conclusions of Leite et al. (2011) about the different GSK-3 wide-ranging perceptions of basketball coaches, which led the authors to suggest the need for rethinking the models used by less skilled or inexperienced coaches when working with youth players. Futsal coaches, independently of their level of training and experience, attribute great importance to all sports performance factors.