Thus, both complement-dependent and complement-independent apoptotic cell clearance is immune inhibitory. Since complement opsonization may involve late clearance 14, or clearance in specific circumstances, we used a strictly complement-dependent apoptotic cell clearance model in this study, in order to further understand the distinct β2-integrin-restricted inflammatory inhibition in apoptotic cell clearance. To study the pro- or anti-inflammatory response of complement-dependent
apoptotic cell clearance, we used our previously described system 12, 15. Briefly, apoptotic murine thymocytes are bound to human monocyte-derived macrophages in an iC3b-CR3-dependent interaction. This is a unique system, where complement-dependent clearance of apoptotic cells is seen in >90% of apoptotic cell-phagocyte interactions. As shown in Fig. 1A, complement factors were required for apoptotic thymocyte binding VX-765 or engulfment (i.e. interaction index) by human macrophages. In the presence of fresh serum, the interaction index was 389±45, but a 90% decrease to 37±16 (p<0.0001) was documented upon heat inactivation, and an 86% decrease
to 55±18 (p<0.0001) was shown with C3-depleted serum. This decrease was reversed by addition of C3, but not by adding the nonrelevant C9. The same model was applied to uptake by immature DC (iDC), where a complement-specific interaction was https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ly2157299.html obtained (not shown). In order to determine whether the interacting cells are engulfed in this system, we washed all nonadherent cells after 1 h of interaction,
and then incubated interacting macrophages for 12 h. As shown in Fig. 1B, the interaction index was still more or less the same, even 12 h after interaction, with no evidence of engulfment. Lenvatinib manufacturer This might indicate that adhered cells were not completely engulfed and digested. Using transfection of CD11b/CD18 in CHO cells, we have previously shown that macrophage interaction with iC3b-opsonized thymocytes is CD11b/CD18- and CD11c/CD18-dependent 12. For comparison we used our previously described noncomplement interaction system 5, in which most interacting apoptotic cells had disappeared almost completely by 12 h (data not shown). Thus, this model allows highly specific complement-dependent apoptotic cell−phagocyte interaction. Complement, activated on the surface of apoptotic thymocytes, forms iC3b that allows CD11b/CD18-, CD11c/CD18-, and possibly additional unknown iC3b receptor-dependent interactions. However, it is not completely clear whether these interactions by themselves are sufficient for engulfment, or only for adhesion or tethering. We next wanted to verify whether interaction with CD11b/CD18 and CD11c/CD18 generates a distinct immune response following interaction with apoptotic cells. IL-1β and IL-6 were used as the prototype cytokines, indicating an inflammatory response of macrophages, while IL-10 and TGF-β were used as indicators of an anti-inflammatory response 2, 4.