Authors’ information KO and NS are members of the Medical Control Council, Yokohama, Japan. NS is also the chairman of the council. Pre-publication history The pre-publication
history for this paper can be accessed here: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-227X/9/21/prepub Acknowledgements The authors sincerely thank the members of the Yokohama Emergency Service Working Group. This work was supported by the Yokohama Safety Management Bureau; the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science [KAKENHI (C) 19590640]; and the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society, Japan Science and Technology Agency [Support Program 740800011].
Although pain is a commonly encountered Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical complaint in prehospital and emergency medicine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical settings, evidence of inadequate analgesia
has been widely documented. Poor pain management practice has been described in the emergency department (ED), and variations in pain management practice in this setting have been associated with ethnicity, gender, and extremes of age. Reasons for inadequacies in pain management practice are likely to be multifactorial. Failure to assess for the presence and severity of pain may be one factor, as efforts to make pain measurement mandatory in the ED have been shown to improve the frequency of analgesic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical administration. The importance of early and systematic assessment of pain is exemplified by recommendations to include pain as the “5th vital sign”, reinforcing the need to seek and record evidence of pain in every patient encounter. However, even when pain assessment is encouraged Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or required, patients may be unable to communicate their experience to carers, or be reluctant to report pain due to concerns about treatment side effects or the possibility that they will be viewed as a complaining or difficult patient, a belief that has been documented in settings that include oncology  and aged care[8,9]. Paramedics have an important role Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the assessment and management of pain, and are often a first point of contact for people experiencing
pain in the community. Effective management of pain in this context is made possible by evidence-based clinical practice guidelines that www.selleckchem.com/products/indoximod-nlg-8189.html enable paramedics to relieve pain by pharmacological and non-pharmacological means. However, effective management Cediranib (AZD2171) of pain depends on the paramedic’s ability to gather relevant clinical information to reveal the presence, nature and severity of the patient’s pain. As pain is a personal experience with external manifestations that are associated with significant interpersonal variations of expression that limit generalisations regarding standards of pain behaviour, wherever possible the patient’s self report of pain should be sought to guide the clinician’s assessment and management of this complaint.