Psychiatric symptomatology appears heightened in PT/LBW survivors, though there are some discordant selleck chemicals findings from studies using questionnaire measures, particularly with respect to anxiety and depressive symptoms.\n\nMethod. This article synthesises findings from research using clinical psychiatric diagnostic criteria in PT/LBW individuals aged 10-25 years
compared with term-born peers. Key outcomes of interest were the rates of individuals receiving any psychiatric diagnosis and the number of diagnoses of anxiety or depressive disorders.\n\nResults. A literature search for studies reporting prevalence of ‘any diagnosis’ yielded five studies that met inclusion criteria, with a total of 565 PT/LBW and 533 control individuals. Also, five studies were found that reported rates of anxiety/depression (692 PT/LBW and 605 control individuals). The risk of these outcomes was increased for PT/LBW individuals compared with controls [any diagnosis : odds ratio (OR) 3.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.57-5.21; anxiety or depressive disorder : OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.73-4.73].\n\nConclusions. The studies reviewed here indicate that, in addition to monitoring and management of medical and cognitive sequelae, the psychological well-being of PT/LBW individuals should be a key
part of ongoing care.”
“The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the capability of curcumin, a natural compound found in the Curcuma longa plant, to sensitize a clinical isolate of Epigenetic inhibitor Candida albicans, which was found to have a high resistance to fluconazole. In addition, we assessed
whether the resistance of this isolate was the result of the existence of efflux pumps, which could confer a multiple drug resistance phenotype. To evaluate azole resistance, we used the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) MIC assays procedures with minor modifications. For evaluation of synergistic interaction of curcumin and fluconazole, checkerboard experiments were employed. Nile red and Rhodamine 6G accumulation assays were used to evaluate efflux pump activity. Curcumin was found to have a great capability to inhibit fluconazole resistance of the isolate of C. albicans. It was capable of restoring its sensitivity to this azole when used at 11 click here mu M. Analysis with different azoles and the two indicated dyes showed that an efflux pump could be acting and contributing to the resistance of this isolate to fluconazole. The results suggest that a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter might be involved in this process.”
“The Protea hybrid ‘Carnival’ (Protea compacta x Protea neriifolia) is responsive to seasonal change, arresting growth during the winter and producing flowers in the late summer after initiating flowering during the elongation of the spring flush. The large commercially attractive flower heads, consisting of over 200 florets, develop over a period of months.
Cognitive function was assessed in both studies at baseline and during follow-up.\n\nRESULTS-Subjects with diabetes had impaired cognitive function at baseline. In contrast,
in people without a history of diabetes, there was no clear association between baseline fasting glucose levels and executive function and memory, nor was there a consistent relationship between elevated baseline fasting glucose levels and the rate of cognitive decline in either cohort. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment index) was also unrelated to cognitive GSK126 Epigenetics inhibitor function and decline.\n\nCONCLUSIONS-Elevated fasting glucose levels and insulin resistance are not associated with worse cognitive function in older people without a history of diabetes. These data suggest either that there is a threshold for effects of dysglycemia on cognitive function or that factors other than hyperglycemia contribute to cognitive check details impairment in individuals with frank diabetes. Diabetes 59:1601-1607, 2010″
“Calpastatin (CAST) is a specific inhibitor
of the ubiquitous calcium-dependent proteases-mu-calpain and m-calpain, found in mammalian tissues. This proteolytic system plays a key role in the tenderization process that occurs during post-mortem storage of meat under refrigerated conditioning. Fragments of the bovine CAST gene including intron 12 were amplified and subjected to SSCP analysis. Four new SNPs were found within intron 12 of the CAST gene: a transition T/C at position 3893+155* A/G at position 3893+163, a transversion T/A at position 3893+223 and a substitution A/G at position 3893+428 (consensus sequence-GenBank AY834771). The genetic variants in the bovine CAST gene can be analyzed with RFLP method and was studied in 375 bulls of six breeds, including AR-13324 clinical trial Hereford, Aberdeen-angus, Simmental, Charolaise, Limousine and Polish Black-and-White (BW; Fresian) breeds.”
“This study was designed to evaluate the
potential benefits of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The right cerebral cortex of rats was injured by the impact of a 20-g object dropped from a predetermined height. The rats received HBO treatment at 3 ATA for 60 min after TBI. Neurological behavior score, brain water content, neuronal loss in the hippocampus, and cell apoptosis in brain tissue surrounding the primary injury site were examined to determine brain damage severity. Three and six hours after TBI, HBO-treated rats displayed a significant reduction in brain damage. However, by 12 h after TBI, the efficacy of HBO treatment was considerably attenuated. Furthermore, at 24, 48, and 72 h after TBI, the HBO treatment did not show any notable effects. In contrast, multiple HBO treatments (three or five times in all), even when started 48 h after TBI, remarkably reduced neurology deficit scores and the loss of neuronal numbers in the hippocampus.
We address the fundamental issue of how these cells work by applying a scanning electron microscopy-based technique to cell cross-sections. By mapping the variation Stem Cell Compound Library in efficiency of charge separation and collection
in the cross-sections, we show the presence of two prime high efficiency locations, one at/near the absorber/hole-blocking-layer, and the second at/near the absorber/electron-blocking-layer interfaces, with the former more pronounced. This ‘twin-peaks’ profile is characteristic of a p-i-n solar cell, with a layer of low-doped, high electronic quality semiconductor, between a p-and an n-layer. If the electron blocker is replaced by a gold contact, only a heterojunction at the absorber/hole-blocking interface remains.”
“Saturated fatty acids (SFA) have been reported to alter organelle integrity and function in many cell types, including
muscle and pancreatic beta-cells, adipocytes, hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes. SFA accumulation results in increased amounts of ceramides/sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids (PL). In this study, using a yeast-based model that recapitulates most of the trademarks of SFA-induced lipotoxicity in mammalian cells, we demonstrate that these lipid species act at different levels of the secretory pathway. Ceramides mostly appear to modulate the induction of the unfolded protein response and the transcription of nutrient transporters destined to the cell surface. On the other hand, saturated GW4869 PL, by altering membrane properties, directly impact vesicular budding at later steps in the secretory pathway, i.e. at the trans-Golgi Network level. They appear to do so by increasing lipid order within intracellular membranes which, in turn, alters the recruitment of loose lipid packing-sensing proteins, required for optimal budding, to nascent vesicles. We propose that this latter general mechanism could account for the well-documented deleterious impacts of fatty acids
www.selleckchem.com/products/oicr-9429.html on the last steps of the secretory pathway in several cell types.”
“It is widely accepted that the first photosynthetic eukaryotes arose from a single primary endosymbiosis of a cyanobacterium in a phagotrophic eukaryotic host, which led to the emergence of three major lineages: Chloroplastida (green algae and land plants), Rhodophyta, and Glaucophyta. For a long time, Glaucophyta have been thought to represent the earliest branch among them. However, recent massive phylogenomic analyses of nuclear genes have challenged this view, because most of them suggested a basal position of Rhodophyta, though with moderate statistical support. We have addressed this question by phylogenomic analysis of a large data set of 124 proteins transferred from the chloroplast to the nuclear genome of the three Archaeplastida lineages. In contrast to previous analyses, we found strong support for the basal emergence of the Chloroplastida and the sister-group relationship of Glaucophyta and Rhodophyta.
05). In cages, 24.7% of NE for production was spent on body fat deposition, whereas in the floor system, 9.0% of NE for production was released from body fat reserves. The ME intake was predicted by the equation (R-2 = 0.74) ME intake (kJ/d) = 612 BW0.75 – (8.54 x T) + (28.36 x ADG) + (10.43 x egg mass) – (0.972 Vorinostat cost x FC). Hen performances were not affected by treatments, indicating the adaptive capacity of young laying hens to a broad range of environmental conditions.”
“No study has been published yet in the Arab world regarding response
and outcome of imatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This study evaluated a total of 122 patients with CML treated with imatinib between 2001 and 2012. Survival, hematologic, cytogenetic and molecular responses and adverse events were assessed. The 5-year overall survival (OS), event free survival
(EFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were: 95.4 +/- 2.3%, 81.4 +/- 4.6% and 90.8 +/- 3.2%, respectively. Significant differences in OS (p = 0.001), EFS (p = 0.001) and PFS (p = 0.001) were noted when patients were stratified by cytogenetic response. Survival by Sakai risk groups was not significant (p = 0.293). Complete hematologic response was achieved Microtubule Associat inhibitor in 94 patients (93.1%), cytogenetic response in 84 (83.2%), major molecular response in 62 (61.4%) and complete molecular response in 34 (33.7%). This article presents the PLX4032 first evidence on the effectiveness of imatinib in patients with
CML from Saudi Arabia and highlights similarities and differences in response patterns in published studies.”
“Glioma stem cells (GSCs), which are originated from transformed neural stem cells, are tumor-initiating cells of glioma, the most common primary malignant neoplasm of the central nervous system. Extensive studies have shown that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) plays an important role in the differentiation and proliferation of neural stem cells. To seek the functions and mechanisms of BMP4 in GSCs, GSCs isolated from U87 human glioma cells by using vincristine were exposed to BMP4 protein. This study shows that BMP4 inhibited U87 GSC proliferation (p < 0.01) via downregulation of cyclin D1 level and promoted GSC apoptosis through induction of Bax expression and inhibition of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL levels. Thus, these results indicate a new approach of GSC-based glioma treatment.”
“Brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1), the first recorded Mendelian autosomal dominant disorder in humans, is characterized by a shortening or absence of the middle phalanges. Heterozygous missense mutations in the Indian Hedgehog (IHH) gene have been identified as a cause of BDA1; however, the biochemical consequences of these mutations are unclear. In this paper, we analyzed three BDA1 mutations (E95K, D100E, and E131K) in the N-terminal fragment of Indian Hedgehog (IhhN).
We advanced a microcatheter into the aneurysm through the strut of existing stent and delivered detachable coils into the aneurysm lumen successfully in both cases. The post-procedural course was uneventful, and complete obliteration of aneurysm was confirmed on angiography in both cases.\n\nStenting for stenotic intracranial VAD may result in delayed PSA; therefore, follow-up angiographies would be necessary after
stenting for stenotic intracranial arterial dissection. Coil embolization through the stent strut would be a solution BMS-777607 in vitro for enlarging PSA.”
“We report the genome of the facultative intracellular parasite Rhodococcus equi, the only animal pathogen within the biotechnologically important actinobacterial genus Rhodococcus. The 5.0-Mb R. equi 103S genome is significantly smaller than those of environmental
rhodococci. This is due to genome expansion in nonpathogenic species, via a linear gain of paralogous genes and an accelerated genetic flux, rather than reductive evolution in R. equi. The 103S genome lacks the extensive catabolic and secondary metabolic complement of environmental rhodococci, and it displays unique adaptations for host colonization and competition in the short-chain fatty acid-rich intestine and manure of herbivores-two main R. equi reservoirs. Except for a few horizontally acquired (HGT) pathogenicity loci, including a cytoadhesive pilus determinant (rpl) and the virulence plasmid vap pathogenicity island (PAI) required for
intramacrophage survival, most of the potential virulence-associated genes identified in R. equi are conserved in environmental rhodococci or have NCT-501 homologs in nonpathogenic Actinobacteria. This suggests a mechanism of virulence evolution based on the cooption of existing core actinobacterial traits, triggered by key host niche-adaptive HGT events. We tested this hypothesis by investigating R. equi virulence plasmid-chromosome crosstalk, by global transcription profiling and BI-6727 expression network analysis. Two chromosomal genes conserved in environmental rhodococci, encoding putative chorismate mutase and anthranilate synthase enzymes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, were strongly coregulated with vap PAI virulence genes and required for optimal proliferation in macrophages. The regulatory integration of chromosomal metabolic genes under the control of the HGT-acquired plasmid PAI is thus an important element in the cooptive virulence of R. equi.”
“The aim of the study was to determine whether patients’ symptoms agree with findings on clinical examination and dynamic MR imaging of the pelvic floor.\n\nSymptoms of pelvic organ dysfunction were measured with the use of three validated questionnaires. The domain scores were compared with POP-Q and dynamic MR imaging measurements. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (r (s)) was used to assess agreement.
The water binding capacity Elacridar purchase (WBC) (P smaller than 0.01), swelling capacity (P smaller than 0.01) of gestation diets, the concentration of total short chain fatty acids (P smaller than 0.05) after in vitro fermentation of gestation diets increased linearly with increasing inclusion amounts of KF. During the second reproductive cycle, increasing dietary KF linearly increased plasma concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) 4h postprandial (P smaller than 0.05) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) 2h post-prandial (P smaller than 0.05), but decreased the plasma concentration of cortisol (linearly, P smaller than 0.05) 1 h postprandial. In addition, there was
a linear decrease of the non-feeding oral behavior of gestating sows (P smaller than 0.01) when dietary KF increased. There were linear increases in lactation feed intake of sows during entire lactation period (P smaller than 0.01) with increasing amounts of KF in the gestation learn more diet. In addition, the number of piglets weaned (linearly, P smaller than 0.01; quadratic, P = 0.01), average piglet weights and litter weights on day 21 of lactation (linearly, P smaller than 0.01) increased with increasing inclusion amounts of KF. In conclusion, inclusion of dietary fiber with great WBC, swelling
capacity and fermentation capacity in the gestation diet was beneficial for enhancing postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, increasing lactation feed intake and improved number of piglets weaned per litter through greater pre-weaning survival. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Natural graphite flakes were intercalated with strong oxidizing agents and were converted into thermally expanded graphite (TEG) through thermal exfoliation. Thermally expanded graphite was delaminated and transformed into graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) by using ultrasonic irradiation. GNP integrated polyaniline (PANi) nanocomposites were synthesized via in-situ polymerization of aniline monomers in the presence of GNP. The structure and morphology of composite was evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.
www.selleckchem.com/products/ly333531.html TEM micrographs revealed that GNP consists of 20-25 graphene layers and PANi was uniformly coated on GNP. From Raman analysis it was showed significant interactions between GNP and polyaniline. Electrical conductivity was measured by using 4-point probe device, enhanced conductivity was obtained for composite. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. To investigate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in muscle biopsy specimens and serum from patients with polymyositis and patients with dermatomyositis compared with that in healthy control subjects.\n\nMethods. Muscle biopsy specimens from 33 patients with polymyositis or dermatomyositis and 15 healthy control subjects and serum samples from 56 patients and 56 healthy control subjects were analyzed.
Over one third of patients had complete suppression of plasma FGF-2, which correlated with clinical response to this therapy. Clin Cancer Res; 19(23); 6597-604. (C) 2013 AACR.”
“BACKGROUND: Using multipollutant models to understand combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants is becoming more common. However, complex relationships between pollutants and differing degrees of exposure error across pollutants can make health effect estimates from multipollutant models difficult
to interpret. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to quantify relationships between PKC412 chemical structure multiple pollutants and their associated exposure errors across metrics of exposure and to use empirical values to evaluate potential attenuation of coefficients in epidemiologic models. METHODS: We used three daily exposure metrics (central-site measurements, air quality model estimates, and population exposure model estimates) for
193 ZIP codes in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area from 1999 through 2002 for PM2.5 and its components (EC and SO4), as well as O-3, CO, and check details NOx, to construct three types of exposure error: delta(spatial) (comparing air quality model estimates to central-site measurements), delta(population) (comparing population exposure model estimates to air quality model estimates), and delta(total) (comparing population exposure model estimates to central-site measurements). We compared exposure metrics and exposure errors within and across pollutants and derived attenuation factors (ratio of observed to true coefficient for pollutant of interest) for single- and bipollutant model coefficients. RESULTS: LY2157299 chemical structure Pollutant concentrations and their exposure errors were moderately to highly
correlated (typically, bigger than 0.5), especially for CO, NOx, and EC (i.e., “local” pollutants); correlations differed across exposure metrics and types of exposure error. Spatial variability was evident, with variance of exposure error for local pollutants ranging from 0.25 to 0.83 for delta(spatial) and delta(total). The attenuation of model coefficients in single-and bipollutant epidemiologic models relative to the true value differed across types of exposure error, pollutants, and space. CONCLUSIONS: Under a classical exposure-error framework, attenuation may be substantial for local pollutants as a result of delta(spatial) and delta(total) with true coefficients reduced by a factor typically smaller than 0.6 (results varied for delta(population) and regional pollutants).”
“Individual differences in drug efficacy or toxicity can be influenced by genetic factors. We investigated whether polymorphisms of pharmacogenes that interfere with metabolism of drugs used in conditioning regimen and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis could be associated with outcomes after HLA-identical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
50 was associated with increased mortality and morbidity in ambulatory patients with chronic HF. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Bone mineral density and microarchitecture was found to predict 70-95% of bone strength. Microdamage, as factor of bone quality, might help to explain the remaining uncertainties. The goal of this study was to investigate whether microindentation can discriminate between intact and severely damaged human vertebral bone tissue in vitro.
One portion from each human vertebral slice (N = 35) tested in compression in a previous study was embedded, polished and tested in wet conditions by means of microindentation. MLN8237 The indentation moduli and hardness (HV) of trabecular, osteonal and interstitial bone structural units were computed along the cranio-caudal direction. Each indented region was defined as damaged or intact as seen under a light microscope. A total of 1190 indentations were performed. While both hardness and indentation modulus were independent from gender, both mechanical properties were affected by damage and microstructure. The damaged regions showed 50% lower stiffness and hardness compared to undamaged ones. Interstitial bone was stiffer and harder (13.2 +/- 4.4 GPa RepSox purchase and 44.7 +/- 20.3 HV) than osteonal bone (10.9 +/- 3.8 GPa and
37.8 +/- 17.3 HV), which was stiffer and harder than trabecular bone (8.1 +/- 3.0 GPa and 28.8 +/- 11.2 HV) indented in the transverse direction. Moreover, along the axial direction intact trabecular bone (11.4 +/- 4.3 GPa) was 16% less stiff than the intact interstitial bone and as stiff as intact osteonal bone. In conclusion microindentation was found to discriminate between highly damaged and intact tissue in both trabecular and cortical bone tested in vitro. It remains to be investigated whether this technique would be able to detect also the damage, which find more is induced by physiological load in vivo. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Matrix-type patches containing
Metoprolol tartrate were prepared from two types of Metolose and acrylate polymers. Metolose SM 4000 and Metolose 90SH 100.000SR were applied in different proportions in the patches where the total polymer content was kept constant in each sample. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of Metolose structure on the free volume of the patches and the consequent drug release profile. The drug release profiles were characterized by zero-order and first-order models. The results indicate that Metolose, containing hydroxypropyl ether groups and methyl ether groups, enables the formation of H-bonds, thus increasing the free volume holes and the consequent extent and rate of drug release of patches. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Additional sequences Daporinad of 18S rDNA of Haemogregarina-like isolates collected from three species of African hinged terrapins (genus Pelusios) were used to enlarge the dataset for phylogenetic analyses. Thirteen sequences (1085 bp) of Haemogregarina representing all four western Palaearctic turtle species were identical, corresponding to H. stepanowi, which is closely related to the Nearctic species H. balli. In our analyses, Haemogregarina spp. constituted a monophyletic clade sister to the genus Hepatozoon. Haemogregarina stepanowi possesses a wide distribution range from the Maghreb, through Europe, Turkey and the Middle East to
Iran. We consider that the genus Haemogregarina has a low host specificity crossing the family level of its vertebrate hosts and that its distribution is likely to be linked to the vector and definitive host – the leech.”
“BackgroundEnd-of-life decisions, including limitation of life prolonging treatment, may be emotionally, ethically
and legally challenging. Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) are illegal in Norway. A study from 2000 indicated that these practices occur infrequently in Norway. MethodsIn selleck chemical 2012, a postal questionnaire addressing experience with limitation of life-prolonging treatment for non-medical reasons was sent to a representative sample of 1792 members of the Norwegian Medical Association (7.7% of the total active doctor population of 22,500). The recipients were also asked whether they, during the last 12 months, had participated in euthanasia, PAS or the hastening
of death of non-competent patients. ResultsSeventy-one percent of the doctors responded. Forty-four percent of the respondents reported that they had terminated treatment at the family’s request not knowing the patient’s own wish, doctors below 50 and anaesthesiologists more often. Anaesthesiologists more often reported to have terminated life-prolonging treatment because of resource considerations. Six doctors reported having hastened the death of a patient the last 12 months, one by euthanasia, AL3818 one by PAS and four had hastened death without patient request. Male doctors and doctors below 50 more frequently reported having hastened the death of a patient. ConclusionForgoing life-prolonging treatment at the request of the family may be more frequent in Norway that the law permits. A very small minority of doctors has hastened the death of a patient, and most cases involved non-competent patients. Male doctors below 50 seem to have a more liberal end-of-life practice.”
“The detoxification process of waters contaminated with phenol, formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde mixtures was studied using advanced oxidation treatments (heterogeneous photocatalysis and Fenton), biological techniques (aerated biological and wetland reactors) and combinations of the two. It is shown that photocatalysis was efficient in the detoxification of concentrations below 50 mg L-1 of those compounds.
This result was
significant for patients adherent in 2007 (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.65, 0.98).\n\nConclusion: The findings of low patient adherence and the impact of adherence on relapses and healthcare resource utilization strongly suggest opportunities to reduce healthcare resource utilization Torin 1 purchase and healthcare costs among RRMS patients taking interferon-beta therapy. Efforts should be undertaken to understand and improve medication-taking behaviour in this population so as to minimize the negative impacts of RRMS on patients while reducing unnecessary direct and indirect costs to treat disease exacerbations.”
“Introduction: The p53 tumour suppressor protein plays a pivotal role in the response of mammalian cells to DNA damage. It regulates cell cycle progression, apoptosis and DNA repair mechanisms and is therefore likely find more to influence response to targeted radionuclide therapy. This study investigated the role of p53 in the cellular response to the Auger-emitting radionuclide indium-111.\n\nMethods: Two stable clones of a HT1080 fibrosarcoma cell line, differing only in p53 status due to RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 expression, were incubated for 1 h with [In-111]-oxinate (0-10MBq/ml). Radiopharmaceutical uptake into HT1080 cells was measured in situ using a non-contact phosphorimager method. Cellular
sensitivity and DNA damage were measured by, respectively, clonogenic survival analysis and the single cell
gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay.\n\nResults: Mean uptake of [In-111]-oxinate in HT1080 cells was unaffected by p53 status, reaching a maximum of 9 Bq/cell. [In-111]-oxinate-induced cytotoxicity was also identical in both clones, as measured by IC50 (0.68 MBq/ml). However the formation of DNA damage, measured immediately after treatment with [In-111]-oxinate, was found to be up to 2.5-fold higher in the p53-deficient HT1080 clone.\n\nConclusions: The increased DNA damage induced in p53-deficient HT1080 cells suggests an early deficiency in the repair of DNA damage during the treatment Proteases inhibitor period. However, the similarity in cellular sensitivity, irrespective of p53 status, suggests that reduced p53 leads to a concomitant reduction in p53-dependent cytotoxicity despite the persistence of DNA damage. The results may provide insight into how tumours that differ in p53 status respond to therapeutic radionuclides. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The need for pulsatility in the circulation during long-term mechanical support has been a subject of debate. We compared histologic changes in calf renal arteries subjected to various degrees of pulsatile circulation in vivo. We addressed the hypothesis that the local renin-angiotensin system may be implicated in these histologic changes.