syringae strain. The closely related Pav Ve013 and Pav Ve037 strains shared 27 ORFs that lacked
orthologs in any other P. syringae strain, while there were no ORFs found only in the three Pav strains and no other P. syringae strain. Figure 3 A. Overlap of ortholog groups between Pav strains and 24 other P. syringae strains. Numbers inside Venn diagram indicate the number of ortholog groups with ORFs in each of the strains represented. The number in brackets in the central cell indicates the number of ortholog groups with at least one representative in each P. syringae strain (core genes). B. Phylogenetic distribution of top BLAST hits of Pav genes with no orthologs in Selleckchem Ganetespib non-Pav P. syringae strains. There were a total of 262 Pav- specific homology groups that lacked orthologs in any other Psy strain in the ortholog analysis section of the results. Approximately half of these were most similar to genes from other species in the gamma-Proteobacteria, while another 25% were most similar to genes from beta-Proteobacterial species (Figure 3b). Over half of the ORFs with gamma-Proteobacterial hits matched genes from other Pseudomonas species, while ~15% were to genes from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris. Of the 142 Pav-specific genes in Pav Ve013, 101 were located in two large gene clusters. One of these was a 110 kb
cluster of 43 genes GSK1120212 molecular weight inserted at a tRNA locus in a region that is syntenic between Pav Ve013 and Psy B728a (Additional file 1: Figure S1). Of these genes, 32 are most similar to Xanthomonas campestris 8004 genes (>50% overlap; E-value <10-10), including a type IV secretion gene and a transposase gene located at one end of the cluster. The second cluster is 175 kb in length and consists of 58 genes, including 17 that are shared with Pav Ve037 (Additional file 2: Figure S2). The central core of this region comprises a 49 kb
Alpelisib PFGI-1 type integrative conjugative element (ICE), most of which is homologous to an ICE from Pseudomonas fluorescens SWB25. Recombination and phylogenetic analysis Comparisons of genealogies Glycogen branching enzyme for each gene greater than 300 bp in length to the genome tree identified seven putatively recombinant genes where Pav BP631 is sister to one or both of the other Pav strains. However, in two cases all but one of the sequences are from Pav strains, so Pav BP631 necessarily has to be sister to other Pav strains in the unrooted tree. Three of the remaining five have very poor branch support. The remaining two putatively recombinant genes, a GAD-like protein and a putative prophage lysozyme, cluster Pav BP631 with one of the other Pav strains, but not both. In both cases the gene trees are highly incongruent with the core genome phylogeny, so it is not possible to determine the direction of transfer.