The authors showed that administering TNF-alpha as an adjuvant to

The authors showed that administering TNF-alpha as an adjuvant to doxorubicin treatment increased apoptotic cell death in the

presence of low-levels of DNA damage by using an integrated network approach. Without pathway and network-level information, this non-intuitive relationship may have been missed. Network interpretation has already added depth to non-intuitive instances of drug resistance. Recently, Wilson et al. showed Dolutegravir molecular weight that growth-factors within the tumor microenvironment may increase resistance to kinase inhibitor therapy [22]. While this might seem counterintuitive in a linear-process formalism, considering the cell’s underlying signaling network make these results less surprising. Wagner et al. used network inference methods to create interaction networks by combining systematic RNAi-perturbation data with phosphorylation information at multiple time points for six receptor-tyrosine kinases (RTKs) (EGFR, FGFR1,c-Met,IGF-1R,NTRK2, and PDGFRβ) [23]. From the resulting networks, they clustered each RTK network, identifying core signaling components shared between all RTKs as well as cluster-specific modules. They postulated that modules shared between RTKs within the same cluster could explain resistance to targeted RTK therapy. More specifically, if RTKs

of a particular class shared DNA Damage inhibitor signaling components and affected the same downstream phenotypes, then these within-cluster RTKs could compensate

for chemical inhibition by actuating the original downstream phenotype [23]. They demonstrated this compensation within the EGFR/c-Met/FGFR1 cluster by showing correlation of receptor expression with resistance to therapies targeted to other within-cluster RTKs. A meta-analysis of nine RNAi screens for HIV-replication factors used functional enrichment to explain discrepancies across and high-scoring targets from each screen [24]. When they investigated the percentage of scoring targets across three screens, this overlap only included a modest 3-6% of gene targets. They show that variability between screens, variability between experimental timing and toxicity thresholds all contributed to the minimal overlap among these screens. However, when they looked at gene membership in GO ontology categories, they found much greater overlap in the enrichment of GO categories across screens than in the individual gene targets. This finding indicates that a more global, functional filter is useful for identifying true positives from highly variable RNAi screens. Additionally, using functional pathway membership increased experimental validation rates in an RNAi screen for DNA-damage mediators [25]. The authors screened all protein-coding genes in Drosophila melanogaster and compared top hits to an analogous screen in Saccharomyces cervisiae, but did not see a statistically significant overlap between screening targets [25].

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