5%, 10 0%, and 12 5%, respectively, in the 40–80 cm soil layer T

5%, 10.0%, and 12.5%, respectively, in the 40–80 cm soil layer. The percentages of root dry weights also decreased in the 20–40 cm soil layers. Based on the comparisons among different treatments, the maximum value for root dry weight was found in the 0–10 cm soil layer under the CK treatment at the 12th leaf and early filling stages, 10.6–31.2% greater than those under the T1 and T2 treatments. Significant

differences were observed among the three treatments. For the soil layers in the three treatments, the deeper the subsoiled layer, the lower was the root dry weight; however, the root dry weight in CK treatment began to be significantly lower than those under the T1 and T2 treatments in the 30-cm soil layer. No significant differences were found between the root dry weight in the 0–40 cm soil layer under the T1 and T2 treatments, though that under the T1 treatment was slightly higher than that under the T2 Bleomycin ic50 treatment. The maximum root dry weight was identified OSI-906 in the 40–80 cm soil layer under the T2 treatment, and was 15.2% and 20.9% higher than those under the T1 treatment at the 12th leaf stage and early filling stages,

respectively. There were significant differences between treatments at the early filling stage (Table S1). Root diameter is an important root morphological parameter and reflects soil influence on the root system. The maximum root diameter under the three treatments was found in the 0–10 cm layer (Fig. 5). The root diameter decreased with increasing soil depth. ADAMTS5 In the top soil layer, the maximum root diameter was found under the CK treatment; in the soil below 20 cm, the maximum value was found under

the T2 treatment; at the 12-leaf stage, the variations among root diameters in the 0–80 cm soil layer under the CK, T1 and T2 treatments were 23.7%, 13.8%, and 10.0%, respectively. At the early filling stage, the variations were slightly higher, with values of 28.4%, 16.9%, and 11.3% for the CK, T1, and T2 treatments. The smallest variation was found under subsoiling to 50 cm, suggesting that subsoiling efficiently breaks up the plow pan, reduces soil resistance to root penetration into deeper soil layers, and promotes root downward growth and uptake of water and nutrients in deeper soil. Significant differences in soil compaction in different soil layers across different subsoiling treatments were found (Table 4). Under the CK treatment, lower compaction was found in the 0–10 cm soil layer, but soil compaction significantly decreased in the 10–20 cm soil layer; under the T1 treatment, lower compaction was found in the 0–20 cm soil layer and the soil compaction began to increase significantly below the 30 cm soil layer. Under the T2 treatment, soil compaction gradually increased with soil depth and remained stable to the 40–50 cm soil layer.

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