For clinical trials, the patterns of data obtained for urine gluc

For clinical trials, the patterns of data obtained for urine glucose from each chip was well correlated with those of glucose in blood collected

from the same patients suggesting that our developed system may be able to be used in monitoring glucose levels in urine continuously while being able to give some indication of changes in the level of glucose in the blood. This study was supported by research fund from Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy in our country (Grant no. 10032112 and 10045220). The authors wish to thank Dr. Moon Seok Park in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital for collection of blood and urine samples. “
“Maize starch is one of the most valuable ingredients in the production of food, comprising more than 80% of the starch market worldwide [1]. However, their application is actually limited due to their poor functional physicochemical properties RG7422 nmr that result in a lack of cold water solubility (CWS) and low viscosity. These physicochemical properties of maize starch are affected by its structure, such as the relative crystallinity, ratio of amylose to amylopectin, surface morphology, and granular particle diameter [2], [3] and [4]. Proper processing of starches is required to alter their structural status. Conventional treatments involve heating the starches

in slurry. However, this method causes gelatinization, which seriously influences their application due to the resultant starches becoming grainy and PD-1 antibody inhibitor poor tasting. Therefore, novel techniques for preparing granular cold water soluble starches is thought to be one of the best ways for expanding the industrial application of modified starches. To date, several technologies have been developed

for Megestrol Acetate producing cold water soluble (CWS) starches that retain their granular integrity, such as heating starches in aqueous, high temperature and pressure conditions, and alcoholic–alkaline treatments [5], [6] and [7], each exhibiting variable levels of efficacy. Ball-milling refers to the use of friction, collision, impingement, shear, or other mechanical actions to modify the structure and properties of starch granules [8]. Treatment of starch using ball-milling is low cost and environmental friendly. As a physical method of modification, ball-milling has been used to effectively decrease the relative crystallinity and increase the solubility and digestibility of starch. However, there is currently no published information available on the effect of ball-milling on the physicochemical properties of maize starch. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of processing maize starch with ball-milling treatment on the CWS, crystal structure, granule shape, transparency, and freeze–thaw stability of maize starch. These studies provide a theoretical basis for the industrial production of granular CWS starch.

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