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“Objectives: We aimed to investigate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of the pulmonary vein ablation catheter (PVAC) catheter (a novel multielectrode catheter using duty-cycled bipolar and unipolar radiofrequency energy, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) to completely isolate the pulmonary veins (PVs).
Methods: Twenty-seven patients (60 +/- 8 years) with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) underwent PV isolation with the PVAC catheter. PVAC was used for both mapping and isolation of the PVs (PVAC-guided ablation). After PVAC ablation, presence/absence of PV potentials (PVP)
was verified using a conventional circular mapping catheter. In case of residual PVP on the circular catheter, PVAC ablation was continued.
Results: After PVAC-guided ablation 99 of 106 PVs (93%) and 21 of 27 patients (78%) were proven to be isolated. Failure to isolate was Copanlisib due to a mapping failure in four right-sided PVs and a true ablation failure in three right-sided PVs. After continued PVAC ablation, 103 of 106 PVs (97%) and 25 of 27 patients (93%) were shown to be isolated. The total procedural time from femoral vein access to complete catheter withdrawal was 176 +/- 25 minutes. The actual dwelling-time of the PVAC within
the left atrium was 102 +/- 37 minutes. Esophageal T degrees rise to > 38.5 degrees occurred in nine of 19 monitored TH-302 datasheet patients (47%).
Conclusions: (1) PVAC-guided ablation (i.e., mapping and ablation with a single catheter) results in isolation of all PVs
in 73% of the patients. (2) An additional circular mapping catheter is required to increase complete isolation rate to 93% of the patients. (3) Given the esophageal T degrees rise in almost 50% of patients, safety precautions are needed. (PACE 2010; 33:168-178).”
“The functionalized mesoporous activated carbon (FMAC) was used as support material for immobilization of acid protease (AP). Immobilization of acid protease on functionalized mesoporous activated carbon (AP-FMAC) performs as a suitable enzyme carrier. Under optimized condition pH (6.0) acid protease 150 mg g(-1) β-Nicotinamide price FMAC has been adsorbed. The optimum temperature for both free and immobilized AP activities was 50 degrees C. After incubation at 50 degrees C, the immobilized AP maintained 50% of its initial activity, while the free enzyme was completely inactivated. A significant catalytic efficiency was maintained along for more than five consecutive reaction cycles in AP-FMAC combination immobilized system. The functional groups of the AP, FMAC and AP-FMAC were observed by Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed us to observe the morphology of the surface of FMAC and the AP-FMAC. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.