Current literature and example cases are used to illustrate MEG contribution to clinical decision making, specifically whether a patient with pharmacoresistant epilepsy can move forward to epilepsy surgery. The main conclusion is that the largest role of MEG, as presently performed in the clinical environment, is to increase the number of patients who can go on to surgery, while it should not be used to deny surgery to any patient. MX69 research buy (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: In patients with malaria mixed species infections are common and under reported. In PCR studies conducted in Asia mixed infection rates often exceed 20%. In South-East Asia, approximately one third
of patients treated for falciparum malaria experience a subsequent Plasmodium vivax infection with a time interval suggesting relapse. It is uncertain whether the two infections are acquired simultaneously or separately. To determine whether mixed species infections in humans are derived from mainly from simultaneous or separate mosquito inoculations the literature on malaria species infection in wild captured anopheline
mosquitoes was reviewed.
Methods: The biomedical literature was searched for studies of malaria infection and species identification in trapped wild mosquitoes and artificially infected mosquitoes. The study location and year, collection methods, mosquito species, number of specimens, parasite stage examined (oocysts or sporozoites), Pevonedistat order and the methods of parasite detection and speciation were tabulated. The entomological results in South East Asia were compared with mixed infection rates documented in patients in clinical studies.
Results: In total 63 studies were identified. Individual anopheline mosquitoes were examined for different malaria species in 28 of these. There were 14 studies from Africa; four with species evaluations in individual captured mosquitoes (SEICM). One study, from Ghana, identified a single mixed infection. No mixed selleck compound infections were identified in Central and South America (seven studies, two SEICM). 42 studies
were conducted in Asia and Oceania (11 from Thailand; 27 SEICM). The proportion of anophelines infected with Plasmodium falciparum parasites only was 0.51% (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.57%), for P. vivax only was 0.26% (95% CI: 0.21 to 0.30%), and for mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections was 0.036% (95% CI: 0.016 to 0.056%). The proportion of mixed infections in mosquitoes was significantly higher than expected by chance (P < 0.001), but was one fifth of that sufficient to explain the high rates of clinical mixed infections by simultaneous inoculation.
Conclusions: There are relatively few data on mixed infection rates in mosquitoes from Africa. Mixed species malaria infections may be acquired by simultaneous inoculation of sporozoites from multiply infected anopheline mosquitoes but this is relatively unusual. In South East Asia, where P.