Management of the UMRS began with large woody debris removal, Crizotinib clinical trial timber cutting along the banks, and leveeing of towns along the river. Between 1878 and 1907, a 1.37 m deep navigation channel was created and maintained
by installing river training features, including wing dikes, closing dikes, and rock revetments (O’Brien et al., 1992). In 1907, Congress authorized a 1.83 m navigation channel, so more river training features were installed and dredging was initiated. In the 1930s, a 2.74 m navigation channel was achieved by installing a system of 29 locks and dams, stretching from Minneapolis, Minnesota to Granite City, Illinois. This created a succession of large pool environments, with short reaches of freely flowing sections of river just below the locks and dams, greatly altering the hydrology http://www.selleckchem.com/products/chir-99021-ct99021-hcl.html and ecology of the region (Pinter et al., 2010 and Alexander et al., 2012). Lock and Dam 6 was completed in June 1936 at River Mile 714.1 at Trempealeau, Wisconsin to provide a lift of 2.0 m for navigation. The Lock and Dam consists of a 33-m wide concrete lock structure, a 272-m wide concrete dam with five roller gates and ten Tainter gates, a 305-m wide concrete overflow spillway, and a 792-m wide earth embankment.
Lock and Dam 5a delineates the upper extent of Pool 6 (http://www.mvp.usace.army.mil/Missions/Navigation/LocksDams.aspx). Wing dikes, closing dikes, and levees are found throughout the pool and levees and dikes along sections of the river have disconnected the main channel from large parts of its floodplain (Fig. 1). A levee surrounds Winona for 23.3 km and an elevated railroad dike relocated and constricted the mouth of the Trempealeau River, disconnecting the majority of the floodplains and deltaic backwaters to the north of Pool 6 (Fremling et al., 1973). Despite the history of river
engineering, Pool 6 has continued to be largely island braided, with a mosaic of vegetated islands, sand bars, secondary channels, isolated and continuous backwaters, and wetlands (Collins and Knox, 2003). No island restoration has been undertaken in Pool 6, though a controlled 0.3 Galeterone drawdown occurred in 2010 temporarily exposed 0.54 km2 of sediment (http://www.mvp.usace.army.mil/Portals/57/docs/Navigation/River%20Resource%20Forum/pool_5_6_8drdwn_results.pdf). Seasonal hydrology is dominated by early spring floods resulting from snow melt and spring rains (Fig. 2A). The lowest flows occur during winter months. Since 1936, pool levels have been managed by the USACE (Fig. 2B). During high flows, gates on the concrete dam are opened to facilitate increased discharge, allowing the river to run “naturally. Land area changes and sedimentation rates were quantified for the period from 1895 to 2010, using a nested study design (Table 1).