The value of this care to palliate psycho-existential suffering i

The value of this care to palliate psycho-existential suffering in future patients was also examined (predicted usefulness).

Methods: A questionnaire was sent to 592 bereaved family members of cancer patients who were admitted to certified palliative care units in Japan. Responses were obtained from 378 families, indicating whether the patient received Selleckchem ZD1839 religious care, the perceived usefulness of the care, and its predicted

usefulness for palliation of psycho-existential suffering.

Results: About 25% (N = 83) indicated that the patient had received religious care, whereas 75% (N = 255) had not received it. Families of patients who had received religious care evaluated pastoral care workers (86%), religious services (82%). and religious music (80%) as ‘very useful’ or ‘useful’. Families predicted usefulness of religious care for future patients: attending a religious service (very useful or useful, 56%; not useful or harmful, 44%), a religious atmosphere (48%, 52%), meeting with a pastoral care worker (50%, 50%), and religious care by physicians (26%, 74%). and nurses (27%, 73%).

Families with a religion were significantly more likely to rate religious care as useful for future patients.

Conclusion: Families of patients who received religious care generally evaluated this care to be very useful MAPK inhibitor or useful. For future patients, some families felt that religious care would be useful, but some did not. In BAY 80-6946 Japan, religious care is more likely to provide benefits to patients who have a religion. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“BACKGROUND: The commercial use of organofluorine compounds has dramatically increased over the past few years. However,

little information has been reported on the potential toxicity of organofluorine compounds to anaerobic digestion processes. In this work, the effects of 4-fluorophenol (p-FP), 4-fluorobenzoic acid (p-FB) and 4-fluoroaniline (p-FA) on methanogenesis and biodegradability were evaluated using sucrose-fed systems. RESULTS: The anaerobic biodegradation of three test compounds was not observed in the study. Adsorption of p-FP, p-FB and p-FA to the sludge fitted the linear model well (r2 > 0.94). The partition coefficient Kd was 25 L kg-1 for p-FP, 16 L kg-1 for p-FB and 26 L kg-1 for p-FA. Both methanogensis and hydrolysis acidification were inhibited in the presence of three test compounds. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of methanogenic activity were 339, 1390 and 1907 mg L-1 for p-FP, p-FB and p-FA, respectively. A significant linear correlation (R2 = 0.99, P < 0.05) was obtained between the half maximal inhibitory concentrations and the most negative atomic charges of molecules (q-) of the three F-substituent aromatics.

Of the entire adult pregnant population (ages 18-40) who received

Of the entire adult pregnant population (ages 18-40) who received GDM screening, 5% (40,955/842,993) had positive test results under the current criteria. Nineteen percent (4,486/23,299) of those with GDM received postpartum diabetes testing within a 6-month period. Ninety percent

(148,749/166,085) of all confirmatory GDM tests ABT-263 mw performed on pregnant women at Quest Diagnostics were the 100-g OGTT. The number of women with GDM after receiving the 75-g OGTT would have doubled under the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

CONCLUSION: Many women may not be receiving GDM screening during pregnancy. Postpartum diabetes screening rates after pregnancy remain low. Adoption of the new International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria would require a significant change in current clinical practice. (Obstet Gynecol 2011; 117:61-8) DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181fe424b”

metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases play an important role in the regulation of mesangial cell proliferation and may be involved in ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Preservation solutions are thought to diminish the ischemic injury and appropriate choice of the solution Prexasertib solubility dmso should guarantee a better graft function and good prognosis for graft survival. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of preservation solutions UW and EC on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase II and

tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase II genes in rat kidney.

The study was carried out on Wistar rat kidneys divided into 3 groups: kidneys perfused with 0.9% NaCl (control group), with UW, and with EC preservation solution.

The results show an enhancement of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 gene expression after 12 Selleckchem Luminespib min of cold ischemia. This increase was more expressed in kidneys preserved with UW solution in comparison with kidneys perfused with EC solution and 0.9% NaCl. After 24 h of cold ischemia the expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 genes in kidney perfused with UW solution decreased, while in kidneys perfused with EC it was increased. After warm ischemia the MMP-2 and TIMP-2 gene expression increased, whereas it was significantly lower in kidneys perfused with EC solution.”
“Seedless barberry is a native medicinal shrub that has been cultivated in Iran for more than two centuries. In order to study the effects of harvest dates, harvest times-of-day, drying and harvest methods on quantity and quality of seedless barberry fruits, three separate experiments were conducted in Soorand. Southern Khorasan province, Iran in 2008 and 2010. In the first experiment the effects of different harvest dates (9 September, 1 October, 22 October and 13 November), in the second experiment five harvest times-of-day (07.00, 10.00, 13.00, 16.00 and 19.

Method: We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional st

Method: We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS). Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere’s contribution, we utilized tests to measure alterations in central auditory processing (CAP), such as determination of

frequency patterns; sound duration; music pitch recognition; and identification of environmental sounds. We compared results among the two groups. Wnt activity Results: Children with DD showed lower performance than CS in all CAP subtests, including those that preferentially engaged the cerebral right hemisphere. Conclusion: Our data suggests a significant contribution of the right hemisphere in alterations of CAP in children with DD.Thus, right hemisphere CAP must be considered for examination and rehabilitation of children with DD.”
“Premature closure or restriction

of foramen ovale (FO) is a rare but known entity. FO diameter < 2 mm and Doppler velocity > 120 cm/s, diameter < 3 mm with Doppler velocity measured gradient > 5 mmHg have all being used by various authors to describe this entity. Some neonates with restrictive FO have been noted to have severe pulmonary hypertension with no clinical signs or symptoms and with spontaneous resolution without any intervention. Seven consecutive neonates were indentified in the database between selleck chemical 01/01/2003 and 06/30/2010 with diagnosis of restrictive PFO (diameter < 2 mm) with structurally normal heart and their initial and follow-up echocardiogram as well as hospital medical records were reviewed. As a control, seven neonates with diagnosis of

pulmonary hypertension and respiratory distress syndrome or meconium aspiration AG-881 inhibitor syndrome were randomly selected. Eighty-six percent of the patients in the control group were symptomatic and required treatment as compared to 14% in the restrictive FO group (p = 0.03). Further, the fall in the peak instantaneous pulmonary artery pressure on follow-up echocardiogram was greater in the restrictive FO group compared with the non-restrictive group (p = 0.03). Patients with pulmonary hypertension and a restrictive FO with no other associated congenital heart disease and/or lung pathology behave differently when compared to neonates with non-restrictive FO and pulmonary hypertension with associated lung disease. They seldom manifest symptoms requiring intervention and tend to show a faster drop in their pulmonary artery pressure toward the normal.”
“OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2) against red blood cell (RBC) membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

Experiment 2 compared

Kenneys modified Tyrodes (KMT) and

Experiment 2 compared

Kenneys modified Tyrodes (KMT) and Sperm TALP (Sp-TALP) as the staining and incubation medium for stallion spermatozoa prior to sex-sorting. A significant increase in BGJ398 manufacturer the percentage of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa occurred after staining and incubation in the clarified Sp-TALP compared with KMT. As no improvements in sorting rates were achieved using Sp-TALP, it was concluded that stallion sorting protocols could include KMT as the staining and incubation medium while either INRA 82 (R) or lactose-EDTA could be employed as a cryodiluents.”
“The leaves of Ficus exasperata are mashed and prepared as poultices that are placed on swellings, wounds, and arthritic joints to relieve swelling and pains by the Igede tribal community of Nigeria. The leaf and stalk are also squeezed and used to mitigate itching or inflammation. These claimed benefits inspired this study in which topical and systemic (acute, chronic) anti-inflammatory AZD5153 activities of a methanol/methylene chloride leaf extract of F. exasperata (MFE) were assessed in rodents. Effects of an aqueous leaf extract (AFE) on lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and inducible nitric oxide (iNO) were also investigated in murine bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) cultures. Treatment of rats with MFE (200 and 400 mg/kg) led to significant

inhibition of acute and chronic inflammation induced by, respectively, agar and formaldehyde in the paws. Topically, pre-application of mice with MFE (5 mu g/ear) HDAC inhibitor also significantly inhibited (by up to 21%) ear edema induced by xylene. In vitro, pre-treatment of BMDM with 5-100 mu g AFE/ml significantly inhibited IL-1 beta, TNFa, and iNO production

in a dose-related manner. BMDM viability was not significantly affected AFE at concentrations up to 200 mu g/ml. Initial studies showed that flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids were the predominant phytoconstituents in each extract. In conclusion, the results of the various investigations indicated that F. exasperata leaf extracts possess anti-inflammatory properties that could underlie the benefits associated with the folklore use of the plant. The results also show that the extracts may be acting through a suppression of mediators of inflammation, such as IL-1 beta, TNFa, and iNO.”
“This work carried out a histological analysis on bone defects grafted (MTA) treated or not with LED, BMPs, and membrane (GBR). Benefits of their isolated or combined usage on bone repair were reported, but not their association. Ninety rats were divided into ten groups and each subdivided into three. Defects on G II and I were filled with the blood clot. G II was further LED irradiated. G III and IV were filled with MTA; G IV was further LED irradiated.

Results: A significant increase in the mean total and subscale sc

Results: A significant increase in the mean total and subscale scores was found (reduced quality of life). The presence of pre- or postoperative complications increased the effect on quality of life. No differences in the effect on quality Semaxanib supplier of life could be shown between patients having I or 2 molars extracted.

Conclusions: The results of our study have shown that the short-term consequences of third molar surgery have a strong effect on patients’ quality of life. Experiencing postoperative complications substantially amplifies this effect. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

All rights reserved. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67:1026-1031, 2009″
“Threading dislocations that are of a type were observed to form locally in InGaN layers and wells containing 7%-15% indium. Direct correlations between a type dislocations and stacking faults in InGaN layers and wells

were observed. The formation of these dislocations is attributed to the dissociation of Shockley partials bounding the stacking faults. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3643001]“
“In this study, the structural and morphological properties of poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(acrylonitrile-g-(ethylene-co-propylene-co-diene-g-styrene) (PMMA-AES) blends were investigated with emphasis on the influence of the in situ polymerization conditions of methyl methacrylate. PMMA-AES blends were obtained by in situ polymerization, varying the solvent (chloroform or toluene) and polymerization conditions: method selleck inhibitor Ano stirring and air atmosphere; method Bstirring and N2 atmosphere. The blends were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The results showed that

the PMMA-AES blends are immiscible and present complex morphologies. This morphology shows an elastomeric dispersed phase in a glassy matrix, with inclusion of the matrix in the elastomer domains, suggesting core shell or salami morphology. The occlusion of the glassy phase within the elastomeric domains can be due to the formation of graft copolymer and/or phase inversion during polymerization. However, this morphology is affected by the polymerization conditions (stirring and air or N2 atmosphere) and by the solvent DAPT research buy used. The selective extraction of the blends’ components and infrared spectroscopy showed that crosslinked and/or grafting reactions occur on the elastomer chains during MMA polymerization. The glass transition of the elastomer phase is influenced by morphology, crosslinking, and grafting degree and, therefore, Tg depends on the polymerization conditions. On the other hand, the behavior of Tg of the glassy phase with blend composition suggests miscibility or partial miscibility for the SAN phase of AES and PMMA. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

They are further additions to the small group of phragmalins with

They are further additions to the small group of phragmalins with a C-30 carbonyl moiety, among which thaixylomolins D-E (1-2) contain a Delta(8,14) double bond, whereas thaixylomolin F (3) possesses conjugated Delta(8,9) and Delta(14,15) double bonds. (C) 2013 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Because keloids grow gradually, there is a long time lag until the patients visit the hospital.

To investigate the chronologic change of the maximum dimension Cyclosporin A of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced keloids to provide information on their nature and facilitate early treatment intervention.

Clinical records of patients with keloid

treated between 1998 and 2005 were reviewed, and patients with BCG-induced keloids were assessed with reference to age at onset of keloid, age at first hospital visit, length of the major axis of SRT1720 concentration keloid at first visit, growth rate, and histopathologic features.

Of 716 patients with keloid, 60 (8.4%) had BCG-induced keloid. A significant difference was found between mean age at onset and at first visit. The mean length of maximum dimension was 42.4 mm and increased proportionally to age at first visit. Keloids grew rapidly between the ages of 20 and 40, during which time many

patients did not seek therapy. Histopathologically, no significant differences were noted between BCG-induced keloid and non-BCG keloid.

Early therapeutic intervention might prevent keloids from growing larger, emphasizing a need to provide adequate information

on keloid behavior to patients and physicians involved in BCG vaccination.

The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters.”
“The public health impact of obesity and unintended pregnancy is profound with far reaching consequences. Obese women are less likely to use contraception due to a variety Screening Library of self-induced and systems-based barriers but their risk of becoming pregnant is similar to their normal weight counterparts. However, pregnancy-associated risks for obese women are higher than that of normal weight women and thus, pregnancy generally outweighs the risks of contraceptive use. Adequate counselling to prevent and/or plan for pregnancy is imperative for these women. Research that investigates the relationship between obesity and contraceptive use is urgently needed.”
“Two novel glycosides, 4,5-dimethoxy-3-hydroxyphenol 1-O-beta-(6′-O-galloyl)-glucopyranoside (1) and (+)-2 alpha-O-galloyl lyoniresinol 3 alpha-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (2), as well as a novel ellagitannin named epiquisqualin B (3), were isolated from sapwood of Quercus mongolica var. crispula along with 19 known phenolic compounds. The structures of the novel compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic investigation.

5 h under UV irradiation Unlike P25, reduction by another commer

5 h under UV irradiation. Unlike P25, reduction by another commercial TiO(2) (Hombikat UV100) took 4 h and more than 2 h were necessary for reduction by the composite. Thus the efficiency of Cr(VI) photo-reduction by the composite was lower than by TiO(2), but higher than that by CNTs. XPS analysis of TiO(2) and composite showed the existence of both Cr(VI) and Cr(III) on their surfaces.

CONCLUSION: In contrast to TiO(2), the reduction rate of aqueous Cr(VI) using CNTs as adsorbent was slow. P25 had a markedly higher photocatalytic efficiency than the composite or UV100 alone. Using P25 to reduce aqueous Cr(VI) has a higher potential for practical application.

The diameters of TiO(2) and CNTs and the ratio of TiO(2)/CNTs are key problems in the preparation of TiO(2)/CNTs composite. (C) 2011 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Background: Several variables have been reported as LDC000067 order being prognostic with regard to the outcomes of soft-tissue sarcomas. Although the tumors are subjectively ominous, no prior study has been performed to evaluate the treatment or prognosis of fungating soft-tissue sarcomas.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all soft-tissue sarcomas treated at our institution between 1989 and 2004 that had been followed for a minimum of two years or until the death of the patient. Our study group click here consisted of twenty-four patients with a primary high-grade fungating tumor, and our control group consisted of 146 consecutive

patients with a primary high-grade non-fungating tumor. The study cohorts were compared with regard to disease presentation, treatment, and oncologic outcomes.

Results: There were no significant differences in tumor size, tumor depth, or histopathologic diagnoses between the cohorts, although the patients with a fungating tumor tended to be older (mean, sixty-five years compared with fifty-five years in the control group; p = 0.004) and have shorter postoperative follow-up (mean, thirty-eight months compared with sixty-five months in the control group; p = 0.03). The proportion of patients presenting with metastases was significantly greater in the group with a fungating tumor (33% compared Sapitinib Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor with 9% in

the control group; p = 0.003). Significantly more patients with a fungating tumor underwent amputation (35% compared with 12% in the control group; p = 0.01), while a greater proportion of control patients received radiation therapy (68% compared with 39% in the group with a fungating tumor; p = 0.02). There was no difference in the proportions of patients receiving chemotherapy or in the local recurrence rates between the two cohorts. The Kaplan-Meier five-year overall survival estimates were 20% in the group with a fungating tumor compared with 63% (p < 0.0001) in the control group. The Kaplan-Meier five-year disease-specific survival estimates for patients presenting with localized disease was 58% in the group with a fungating tumor and 74% in the control group (p = 0.05).

0318, P = 0 0123, respectively) In contrast, SCCmec type IV stra

0318, P = 0.0123, respectively). In contrast, SCCmec type IV strains were observed in significantly higher proportion in sporadic isolates than in epidemic isolates (P = 0.0494). Although isolates with sec were detected in higher rates in epidemic isolates (P = 0.0397), seh was detected in higher rates in sporadic isolates (P = 0.0350). Multivariate logistic regression analysis with forward stepping revealed that SCCmec type II was independently associated with epidemic isolates (P = 0.0067; odds ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.64). These data indicated that SCCmec type II MRSA isolates were responsible for the increased MRSA bloodstream infections for inpatients during the 18-year study period in the hospital.”

check details Because of a dismal prognosis for advanced renal-cell carcinoma (RCC),

an alternative therapeutic approach, using vitamin K-3 (VK3) and D-fraction (DF) was investigated. VK3 is a synthetic VK derivative and DF is a bioactive mushroom extract, and they have been AS1842856 mouse shown to have antitumor activity. We examined if the combination of VK3 and DF would exhibit the improved anticancer effect on RCC in vitro. Materials and Methods: Human RCC, ACHN cell line, were treated with varying concentrations of VK3, DF, or a combination of the two. Cell viability was assessed at 72 hours by MTT assay. To explore the possible anticancer mechanism, studies on cell cycle, MS-275 manufacturer chromatin modifications, and apoptosis were conducted. Results: VK3 alone led to a approximate to 20% reduction in cell viability at 4M, while DF alone induced a 20% to 45% viability reduction at 500g/mL. A combination of VK3 (4M) and DF (300g/mL) led to a drastic >90% viability reduction, however. Cell cycle analysis indicated that VK3/DF treatment induced a G(1) cell cycle arrest, accompanied by the up-regulation of p21(WAF1) and p27(Kip1). Histone deacetylase (HDAC) was also significantly (approximate to 60%) inactivated, indicating chromatin modifications. In addition, Western blot analysis revealed that the up-regulation of Bax and activation of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) were seen in VK3/DF-treated cells, indicating

induction of apoptosis. Conclusions: The combination of VK3 and DF can lead to a profound reduction in ACHN cell viability, through a p21(WAF1)-mediated G(1) cell cycle arrest, and ultimately induces apoptosis. Therefore, the combination of VK3/DF may have clinical implications as an alternative, improved therapeutic modality for advanced RCC.”
“BACKGROUND: Mobilizing agents (MAs) have been suggested to improve the fungal degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. Three different MAs (Tween 20, Tween 80 and soybean oil) were investigated for their ability to stimulate contaminant degradation by either Phlebia sp. DABAC 9 or Allescheriella sp. DABAC1 in a soil spiked with a mixture of PAHs.

RESULTS: Phlebia sp. and Allescheriella sp.

0 mL min(-1) The correlation coefficients for all the calibratio

0 mL min(-1). The correlation coefficients for all the calibration plots (r > 0.999) showed good linearity over the range tested. The relative standard deviation of the method was less than 7% and 10% for intra and inter-day assays respectively, and average recovery was between 77.2 and 99.2%. The detection limits of this method were between 0.006 and 0.02 mu g mL(-1). The method has been successfully applied to determine drug concentrations in normal and diabetic rat plasma samples and pharmacokinetic of Ginkgo biloba extract.”
“Post-transplantation histoplasmosis may be acquired

via inhalation, may result from endogenous learn more reactivation, or may be derived from the allograft. The Histoplasma and Aspergillus enzyme-linked immunoassays are increasingly being relied upon

for rapid diagnosis of fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. We describe 4 cases of solid organ transplant recipients who had histoplasmosis and a falsely positive Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) obtained from the serum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. We also report our experience, testing for Histoplasma antigen (Ag) in specimens positive for Aspergillus GM. From January 2007 through December 2010, of 2432 unique patients who had positive Aspergillus GM tests, GSK461364 514 (21%) were tested for Histoplasma Ag, and 27 were found to be positive. Most specimens that tested positive for both Aspergillus and Histoplasma were obtained by BAL. False-positive tests for Aspergillus GM can occur in immunosuppressed patients who have histoplasmosis, and may obscure the

this website correct diagnosis.”
“Utilizing the MP2/6-31G(d,p) method a quantum-chemical investigation was performed of thermally induced formation of pyrrole and/or 2,3-dihydropyridine structures from methyl N-methyl-2-methoxy- and 2-(methylsulfanyl)buta-2,3-dienimidothioates (1-aza-1,3,4-trienes). According to calculations the pyrrole and dihydropyridine cyclization of a methoxy-substituted 1-aza-1,3,4-triene is both kinetically and thermodynamically virtually equally probable with a little prevalence of the first pathway. The main direction of the structural reorganization of methylsulfanyl-substituted 1-aza-1,3,4-triene is the kinetically controlled formation of the dihydropyridine ring.”
“W/O/W multiple emulsions containing naltrexone (NTX) hydrochloride were prepared by a two-step emulsification method at 20 degrees C. Characterization of the developed system was evaluated and the release kinetics of the drug was determined. The tissue response to the injection of the multiple emulsion in mice was observed by histological analysis. The entrapment efficiency of NTX hydrochloride in W/O/W multiple emulsion was 97.72 +/- 0.8 % and the mean diameter of the multiple globules was 18.6 +/- 7.7 mu m. The main in vitro drug release mechanism observed for the developed system is supposed to be a swelling breakdown phenomenon after dilution of the emulsions under hypo-osmotic conditions.

Among the numerous molecules involved in this process, the most i

Among the numerous molecules involved in this process, the most important are the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), proteins that are activated only when bound to cyclins (regulatory proteins with fluctuating concentrations).

In general, more CDKs are overexpressed in cancer cells than in normal cells, which explains why cancer cells divide uncontrollably. Succeeding in modulating CDK activity with pharmacological agents could result in decreasing the abnormal

proliferation LY294002 price rate of cancer cells.

This review offers an overview of CDK-cyclin complexes in relation to different cell cycle phases, an analysis of CDK activation and inhibition of molecular mechanisms, and an extensive report, including clinical trials, regarding four new drugs acting as CDK modulators: alvocidib, P276-00, SNS-032 and seliciclib.”
“In the search for novel and bioactive molecules for drug discovery, marine-derived natural resources, especially marine microorganisms are becoming

an important and interesting research area. This study covers the literature published after 2008 on secondary metabolites of marine-derived microorganisms. The emphasis was on new compounds with the relevant biological activities, strain information, and country of origin. New compounds without biological activity were not included.”
“Therapeutic strategies designed to treat HIV infection with combinations of antiviral drugs have proven to be the best approach for slowing HSP990 ic50 the progression to AIDS. Despite the great PF-6463922 success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), drug resistance and toxicity issues still remain a concern for some individuals. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies need to be developed to overcome these limitations. Nucleic acid-based therapeutics have been considered as an alternative to the currently used antivirals. In this regard, RNA interference (RNAi) can function as a gene-specific therapeutic option for controlling

HIV-1 replication. Another type of therapeutic nucleic acid – aptamers – shows promise as a new and potent class of anti-HIV agent and can additionally function as a cell-type-specific delivery vehicle for targeted RNAi. The combined use of small interfering RNA (siRNAs) and aptamers could effectively block viral replication and prevent the emergence of resistant variants. In this review, we recapitulate recent progress and the therapeutic potential of aptamer-siRNA conjugates in the treatment of HIV infection.”
“Aging is associated with a decline in episodic memory function. This is accompanied by degradation of and functional changes in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) which subserves mnemonic processing. To date no study has investigated age-related functional change in MTL substructures during specific episodic memory processes such as intra-item associative memory. The aim of this study was to characterize age-related change in the neural correlates of intra-item associative memory processing.