The value of this care to palliate psycho-existential suffering in future patients was also examined (predicted usefulness).
Methods: A questionnaire was sent to 592 bereaved family members of cancer patients who were admitted to certified palliative care units in Japan. Responses were obtained from 378 families, indicating whether the patient received Selleckchem ZD1839 religious care, the perceived usefulness of the care, and its predicted
usefulness for palliation of psycho-existential suffering.
Results: About 25% (N = 83) indicated that the patient had received religious care, whereas 75% (N = 255) had not received it. Families of patients who had received religious care evaluated pastoral care workers (86%), religious services (82%). and religious music (80%) as ‘very useful’ or ‘useful’. Families predicted usefulness of religious care for future patients: attending a religious service (very useful or useful, 56%; not useful or harmful, 44%), a religious atmosphere (48%, 52%), meeting with a pastoral care worker (50%, 50%), and religious care by physicians (26%, 74%). and nurses (27%, 73%).
Families with a religion were significantly more likely to rate religious care as useful for future patients.
Conclusion: Families of patients who received religious care generally evaluated this care to be very useful MAPK inhibitor or useful. For future patients, some families felt that religious care would be useful, but some did not. In BAY 80-6946 Japan, religious care is more likely to provide benefits to patients who have a religion. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“BACKGROUND: The commercial use of organofluorine compounds has dramatically increased over the past few years. However,
little information has been reported on the potential toxicity of organofluorine compounds to anaerobic digestion processes. In this work, the effects of 4-fluorophenol (p-FP), 4-fluorobenzoic acid (p-FB) and 4-fluoroaniline (p-FA) on methanogenesis and biodegradability were evaluated using sucrose-fed systems. RESULTS: The anaerobic biodegradation of three test compounds was not observed in the study. Adsorption of p-FP, p-FB and p-FA to the sludge fitted the linear model well (r2 > 0.94). The partition coefficient Kd was 25 L kg-1 for p-FP, 16 L kg-1 for p-FB and 26 L kg-1 for p-FA. Both methanogensis and hydrolysis acidification were inhibited in the presence of three test compounds. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of methanogenic activity were 339, 1390 and 1907 mg L-1 for p-FP, p-FB and p-FA, respectively. A significant linear correlation (R2 = 0.99, P < 0.05) was obtained between the half maximal inhibitory concentrations and the most negative atomic charges of molecules (q-) of the three F-substituent aromatics.