[20-23] Experimental

IL-33 gene-deletion impairs pathogen

[20-23] Experimental

IL-33 gene-deletion impairs pathogenesis of colitis,[24] selleck chemical although the mechanisms by which the IL-33/ST2 system exacerbates colitis are unresolved. The aims of this study were to elucidate the mechanisms by which IL-33 exacerbates experimental colitis in mice. Our study demonstrated that IL-33 and ST2 are the genes early induced in the colonic tissue during DSS-induced colitis. Furthermore, IL-33 exacerbates acute colitis in association with the induction of pro-inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines as well as chemokine production in an ST2-dependent and IL-4-dependent manner. BALB/c mice were purchased from Harlan Olac (Bicester, UK), and ST2−/−, IL-4−/− and IL-4R−/− mice on a BALB/c background were generated as described previously.[13, 17] Mice were housed in specific pathogen-free conditions at the University of Glasgow in accordance with the UK Home Office animal welfare guidelines. For the induction of acute colitis, female mice were given 3·5% (weight/volume) DSS (ICN Biomedicals, Aurora, OH) in their drinking water from day 0 for 12 consecutive days. Some mice received recombinant IL-33 (1 μg/mouse/day) or PBS intraperitoneally daily from day 0 for 19 days. The IL-33 was produced and purified as previously described.[13] The body weight and stool consistency were monitored daily. Diarrhoea was scored as follows: 0 (normal); 2 (loose stools); 4 (watery diarrhoea).[25] Body weight

loss was calculated as the difference BMN 673 solubility dmso between the baseline weight on day 0 and the body weight on a particular day. Colons were opened longitudinally and washed in sterile PBS supplemented with 1% penicillin/streptomycin (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA). Three segments from the distal colon of 1 cm in length were placed in 24 flat-bottom well culture plates (Costar,

Cambridge, MA) containing fresh RPMI-1640 (Life Technologies) supplemented with 1% penicillin/streptomycin and incubated at 37° for 24 hr. Culture supernatants were then harvested, centrifuged at 13 000 g, and stored at − 20°. Cytokine/chemokine concentrations were detected by a Protein kinase N1 multi-cytokine/chemokine (20-plex) bead fluorescence assay (Invitrogen, Paisley, UK) according to the manufacturer’s instructions, using a Luminex platform. Colon specimens were fixed in 10% neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and stained with haematoxylin & eosin. Histological examination was performed on three serial sections at six different sites of the colon and was scored blind using a standard histological scoring system.[25] Raw RNA microarray (Affymetrix CEL) files in the public domain derived from mouse colon tissue response to DSS induction at days 0, 2, 4 and 6 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO, GSE22307 and ref [26]) and analysed as previously described.[27] Briefly, the analysis of the differential gene expression patterns used Affymetrix Gene Chip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array.

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