Consequently, the cytosolic N-terminal domain becomes accessible

Consequently, the cytosolic N-terminal domain becomes accessible and stabilizes the interaction between phospho-KdpE and the DNA. In parallel, KdpD transfers the phosphoryl group to the response regulator KdpE that dimerizes, and binds with increased affinity to the KdpE-binding site upstream the kdp-promoter/operator region (Fig. ICG-001 in vitro 2a). Other proteins modulate the signaling cascade. Under conditions of hyperosmolarity, the

production of the universal stress protein UspC is enhanced. UspC interacts with the Usp domain within KdpD, and scaffolds the KdpD/phospho-KdpE/DNA complex at a high intracellular K+ concentration (Fig. 2b). Nonphosphorylated IIANtr of the Ntr-PTS interacts with KdpD and shifts

KdpD into the ‘ON’ state when E. coli needs more K+ due to increased metabolic requirements. selleck chemicals llc The phosphorylation state of IIANtr is influenced by the transport-PTS, and therefore, cells are able to adjust K+ uptake according to the available C source (Fig. 2c). The link between Ntr-PTS and the Kdp system ensures K+ homeostasis according to the metabolic state of E. coli. During the past 15 years of research on the molecular mechanism of stimulus perception and signaling by the KdpD/KdpE histidine kinase/response regulator system, we have been realizing that a ‘simple’ two-component system is more complex than thought before. We have learnt that KdpD has the capability to integrate diverse stimuli to allow best adaptation of E. coli Parvulin in different environments. Moreover, the link between Kdp and Ntr-PTS demonstrates an elegant mechanism to connect gene regulation with metabolic requirements to ensure K+ homeostasis under various cellular conditions. It is quite possible that the currently known collection of accessory proteins for histidine kinase/response

regulator systems reflects only a small portion of the complex regulatory interaction network within a prokaryotic cell. Continuous progress of bacterial genome projects has resulted in the availability of several hundred bacterial genome sequences to date. These analyses elucidated that KdpD/KdpE is one of the most widespread histidine kinase/response regulator systems among bacteria and archaea, indicating the importance of this ‘simple’ two-component system for various bacterial lifestyles. This work was financially supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Exc114-1) and the BMBF (SysMO, project KOSMOBAC). We are grateful to Dr Boris Görke for critically reading the manuscript. “
“Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent a heterogeneous group of microorganisms naturally present in many foods and those have proved to be effective mucosal delivery vectors. Moreover, some specific strains of LAB exert beneficial properties (known as probiotic effect) on both human and animal health.

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