Figure 7. The connectome as an example of an intermediate phenotype. This schematic diagram illustrates a hierarchy of brain phenotypes, ranging from molecular to behavioral scales. Variations along these scales are influences by genetic HTC variation and environmental … Outlook The study of brain
networks is still in its infancy. The development of new analytic techniques and modeling approaches, in parallel with continued methodological refinements in the area of human neuroimaging, continue Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to allow ever more detailed analyses of human structural and functional networks. Graph methods have proven useful for capturing how networks vary across individuals, how they change with experience, how they evolve across the human life span, and why they fail in a variety of brain and mental disorders. In the immediate
future, some important areas of research will likely focus on structure function relationships, leading to a better Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical understanding of how structural networks give rise to rich and flexible neural dynamics. Another promising area involves the analysis of network dynamics, the ever-changing topology of brain networks that are endogenously generated and modulated by Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical stimuli and the http://www.selleckchem.com/products/XL184.html environment. Studies of how networks change in the course of early development will likely stimulate new approaches towards mapping Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical individual cognitive and behavioral developmental trajectories. Studies
of networks may also prove important in the context of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, contributing to the as-yet elusive goal of developing better diagnoses and treatment options. Whatever the future may bring the convergence of new technologies for observing the structure and function of the human brain with new analysis and modeling methods for the study of complex networks will almost certainly continue Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to bring change to the field. The new science of networks may provide a much needed theoretical framework for uniting empirical and computational studies of the nervous systems at all scales, from neurons to systems. Along the way, we may Entinostat finally uncover the principles of network organization that account for the human brain’s astonishing computational power, flexibility, and robustness. Acknowledgments The author’s research was supported by the JS McDonnell Foundation.
Various theoretical orientations have converged upon the conceptualization of borderline personality disorder (BPD) as a disturbance in mental representations of self and other, contributing to core difficulties in identity, intimacy, empathy, and self-directed motivation.