Genomic systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that SCO7518 specifically binds to an operator sequence located upstream of the sco7519 gene, which encodes a maltose O-acetyltransferase. These results suggest that SCO7518 is a transcriptional repressor of sco7519 expression. (C) 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Retroelements are an abundant class of noncoding DNAs present in about half of the human genome. Among them, L1,
Alu and SVA are currently active. They “jump” by retrotransposition, shuffle genomic regions by 5′ and 3′ transduction, and promote or inhibit gene transcription by providing alternative promoters or generating antisense PKC412 and/or
regulatory noncoding RNAs. Recent data also suggest that retroelement insertions into exons and introns of genes induce different types of genetic disease, including cancer. Retroelements interfere with the expression of genes by inducing alternative splicing via exon skipping and exonization using cryptic splice sites, and by providing polyadenylation signals. Here we summarize our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of retroelement-induced mutagenesis which causes fifty different types of human disease. We categorize these mutagenic effects according to eleven different mechanisms and show that most of them may be explained either by traditional exon definition or transcriptional Tariquidar molecular weight interference, a previously unrecognized molecular mechanism. In summary, this review gives an overview of retroelement
insertions in genes that cause significant changes in their transcription and cotranscriptional splicing and show a remarkable level of complexity. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The DNA-binding transcriptional activator Gal4 and its regulators Gal80 and Gal3 constitute a galactose-responsive switch for the GAL genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gal4 binds to GAL gene UAS(GAL) (upstream activation sequence in GAL gene promoter) sites as a dimer via its N-terminal domain and activates transcription via a C-terminal transcription activation SB273005 domain (AD). In the absence of galactose, a Gal80 dimer binds to a dimer of Gal4, masking the Gal4AD. Galactose triggers Gal3-Gal80 interaction to rapidly initiate Gal4-mediated transcription activation. Just how Gal3 alters Gal80 to relieve Gal80 inhibition of Gal4 has been unknown, but previous analyses of Gal80 mutants suggested a possible competition between Gal3-Gal80 and Gal80 self-association interactions. Here we assayed Gal80-Gal80 interactions and tested for effects of Gal3. Immunoprecipitation, cross-linking, and denaturing and native PAGE analyses of Gal80 in vitro and fluorescence imaging of Gal80 in live cells show that Gal3-Gal80 interaction occurs concomitantly with a decrease in Gal80 multimers.