However, intracellular M bovis CFU decreases drastically after 2

However, intracellular M. bovis CFU decreases drastically after 24 h, which could be attributed to the massive cellular death observed. The CFU assessment shows no significant difference in the intracellular bacterial load of M. bovis between MDMs from tuberculosis and healthy control cattle. BTB is a chronic infectious disease caused by the pathogen M. bovis and continues to pose a threat to livestock

worldwide. Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis in cattle and M. bovis Beijing strains cause a substantial proportion of tuberculosis cases worldwide (Chen et al., 2009; Kremer et al., 2009). Understanding the specific immune response to BTB will aid in developing improved control and diagnostic strategies. Studies on tuberculosis in humans indicate that innate immunity, selleck inhibitor TLR signaling and the Th1/Th2 bias of the immune response are essential for host defense against tuberculosis (Doherty & Arditi, 2004; Winek et al., 2009; Ahmad, 2011). However, these specific cell signal pathways and immune responses are poorly defined in cattle. Meade et HIF-1 pathway al. (2006)

examined the gene expression profiles of PBMCs from BTB-infected and healthy cattle and demonstrated the differential expression of innate immunity-related genes. In this study, gene expressions of MDMs cells from tuberculosis and healthy groups stimulated with M. bovis were detected. Seven genes (IL1β, IL1R1, IL1A, TNF-α, IL10, TLR2 and TLR4) implicated in immune responses were examined. In MDMs, the expression of the seven examined genes was increased in both stimulated tuberculosis and stimulated healthy cattle. The expression of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, IL1β and its receptor IL1R1 markedly increased, indicating that these genes may play a key role in the early interaction of host cells and M. bovis. The expression of these three genes, although elevated in response to M. bovis stimulation,

showed no significant difference between the two groups. This finding may indicate that the macrophages from tuberculosis cattle have a capability similar to healthy cattle in generating proinflammatory cytokine (IL1β and TNF-α) during early immune response to M. bovis stimulation. In agreement, 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl it is frequently reported that the tuberculosis infection could induce a burst of inflammatory cytokines IL1β and TNF-α in the infected location (Arcila et al., 2007; Qiu et al., 2008; Winek et al., 2009). Two Toll-like receptor genes (TLR2 and TLR4) were examined. The two genes have been studied widely, because they are very important in innate immunity and TLR signaling aids the activation of antigen-specific T cells (Cooper, 2009). Previous studies demonstrated that M. tuberculosis products can be recognized by TLR2 or TLR4 (Aliprantis et al., 1999; Underhill et al., 1999; Abel et al., 2002).

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