In the simulated “”head-up”" position and a fluid flow rate of 4 L min(-1), CPP was similar to 170 mmHg. With the VVP tube horizontal, CPP fell from similar to 170 to 45 mmHg, but increased to similar to 67 mmHg at 30 degrees “”down”", to similar to 70 mmHg at 45 degrees “”down”" and to similar to 75 at 60 degrees “”down”". The fall in CPP in the head-down positions resulted from a decrease in viscous resistance in, and dissipation of pressure to, the “”head”" and “”jugular”" tubes. These data provide an estimate of cranial pressure changes in giraffe during positional changes of the head, and suggest that an increase in CPP plays a significant role in maintaining CBF during head-raising and that it may be an important
preventing fainting in giraffe. Selisistat price (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“MR images were used to look for brain structure irregularities in adolescent children with dyslexia by use of combined grey and white matter volume measurements and fractal dimension (FD) of the grey-white matter border. The data were collected from 13 dyslexic adolescent (8 boys and 5 girls) that were compared with 18 control subjects (8 boys and 10 girls). The MR images were first segmented, and the volume as well as the FD of the grey/white matter border for the whole brain and for each hemisphere was computed. Changes were found in the measured volumes of both grey and white matter and were best reflected in the ratio of grey/white matter and in FD values, especially in the left hemisphere. The results showed that, although dyslexia is less frequent in Selleck GSK3326595 women, the structural differences in the brain are more pronounced in their case, pointing to an increased vulnerability of the female brain to morphological
changes associated with dyslexia. (C) selleck chemicals 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The Edmonston vaccine strain of measles virus has potent and selective activity against a wide range of tumors. Tumor cells infected by this virus or genetically modified strains express viral proteins that allow them to fuse with neighboring cells to form syncytia that ultimately die. Moreover, infected cells may produce new virus particles that proceed to infect additional tumor cells. We present a model of tumor and virus interactions based on established biology and with proper accounting of the free virus population. The range of model parameters is estimated by fitting to available experimental data. The stability of equilibrium states corresponding to complete tumor eradication, therapy failure and partial tumor reduction is discussed. We use numerical simulations to explore conditions for which the model predicts successful therapy and tumor eradication. The model exhibits damped, as well as stable oscillations in a range of parameter values. These oscillatory states are organized by a Hopf bifurcation. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.