Inflammation Induced By Glycated Proteins, Interferon Gamma and

Inflammation Induced By Glycated Proteins, Interferon Gamma and Lipopolysaccharide It has been reported that glycated proteins trigger the inflammation. The pathophysiology of inflammation includes the recruitment of white blood

cells and production of cytokines which are the messenger among the cells.84 In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria, elicits the production of a number of cytokines.85 Cytokines can bind to specific receptors and trigger the complex Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cytokine network signalling. An excessively elevated level of cytokines was observed in AD patients. Among those, INF-γ, which was originally called macrophage-activating factor, is of potential interest.86 Macrophages are sensitive to INF-γ. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical In addition, the non lethal dose of LPS was shown to be toxic in combination with INF-γ in mice. The involvement of cytokines with LPS in Shwartzman-like lethal inflammatory response was observed in rabbits and mice.87,88 There is evidence that this protein modification results in the elevated level of cytokines.89 Inhibition of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Glycated Protein Induced-Inflammation

by Different Antioxidants Inflammation is known as a potential cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD and Parkinson’s. Several inhibitor order us studies have shown that neuronal cell death is regulated by inflammation. Microglia, the resident macrophages in the brain, can produce Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical inflammation markers such as NO and TNF-α. The inflammation, which results in neurodegenerative diseases, has a deleterious effect on neurons.90 Reduction of inflammation might help to decrease the level of induced damages. Polyphenols are a group of compounds with defined structures and are abundant in fruit and vegetables. They are well known as antioxidants and antiinflammatory compounds.91

So far, the use of polyphenols as antiinflammatories has been studied extensively.92 The flavone structure is known as the antiinflammatory structure in a wide range of plant extracts. Resveratrol; however, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical belongs to a different structural family of plant extracts, and has stilbene structure (figure 4).93 The chemical structures of apigenin and resveratrol, their core structures, and related chemical groups are shown Cilengitide in figure 4.94 Inhibition of AGE-Induced Inflammation by Compounds Acting on the Receptors Protein glycation is a protein modification, and is observed in ageing. Glycated proteins can be up taken via the RAGE receptor.49 There are various ways to intervene at the receptor level in AGE-RAGE signalling pathway such as the blockade of the receptor by antagonist and antibody.95 The RAGE was implicated to be involved in AD and diabetic vascular diseases.96 Blockade of RAGE-ligand interaction by soluble RAGE, RAGE antibody and RAGE antagonist were considered in the reduction of plaque formation.97 The RAGE-ligand interaction triggers the AGE-RAGE signalling pathway.

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