Lower halves of the membranes were incubated with an anti-Myc tag

Lower halves of the membranes were incubated with an anti-Myc tag antibody (Applied Biological Materials), rabbit phosphospecific antibodies directed against phosphorylated Ser51 of eIF2α (BioSource International), or rabbit polyclonal antiserum against total yeast eIF2α Immune complexes were detected using enhanced chemiluminescence. Band intensities were quantified by densitometry using ImageJ http://​rsbweb.​nih.​gov/​ij/​ and ratios https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Vorinostat-saha.html between phosphorylated eIF2α and

total eIF2α were calculated. Multiple sequence alignment and secondary structure prediction Multiple sequence alignments of all sequences shown in Figure 1 plus all poxvirus K3L orthologs listed in [49] were performed using MUSCLE HSP inhibitor [54]. Secondary structure predictions for RCV-Z and ATV vIF2α sequences were performed using Porter [55]. Acknowledgements We thank Alan Hinnebusch and members of the Dever and Hinnebusch labs for helpful discussions and Tom Donahue for yeast strains. This work was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, NICHD. Electronic supplementary material

see more Additional file 1: Figure S1 Comparison of colony sizes of PKR-expressing and control stains expressing K3L, vIF2α or E3L. Plasmids expressing VACV K3L (A, pC140), RCV-Z vIF2α (B, pC3853), or VACV E3L (C, p2245) under the control of a yeast GAL-CYC1 hybrid promoter were introduced into isogenic yeast strains having either an empty vector (J673), a GAL-CYC1-human PKR construct (hsPKR, J983), or a GAL-CYC1-zebrafish PKR construct (drPKR, J944) integrated at the LEU2 locus. The indicated transformants were streaked on SC-Gal medium where expression of both PKR and the viral proteins was induced, and incubated at 30°C for 4 days. Results shown are representative of 4 independent transformants for each plasmid. (PDF 562 KB) Additional file 2: Figure S2 Relative PKR-induced eIF2α phosphorylation levels after expression of vIF2α, Urease K3L or E3L. Using data from Figure 4D and an independent experiment, the band intensities of phosphorylated and total eIF2α obtained from Western blots of TCA extracts

of yeast cells expressing either human or zebrafish PKR and transformed with an empty vector or plasmids expressing K3L, vIF2α or E3L, as indicated, were measured using ImageJ. The ratios of phosphorylated and total eIF2α bands were calculated. Standard deviations from the two independent experiments are shown, and significant differences, as calculated using a t-test and as compared to the vector controls (p < 0.05), are shown. n. s. = non significant. (PDF 35 KB) References 1. Essbauer S, Ahne W: Viruses of lower vertebrates. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 2001, 48:403–475.PubMed 2. Williams T, Barbosa-Solomieu V, Chinchar VG: A decade of advances in iridovirus research. Adv Virus Res 2005, 65:173–248.PubMedCrossRef 3.

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