Migration of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) requires multiple fa

Migration of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) requires multiple factors. Mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) positively regulates the proliferation, migration, survival and differentiation of CGCs in rodents. However, the role of the BDNF precursor, proBDNF, in neuronal development remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of proBDNF in vivo and in vitro on migration of CGCs. We demonstrate that proBDNF and its receptors p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and sortilin are highly expressed in the cerebella

as determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. ProBDNF is released from cultured cerebellar neurons, and this release is increased by high potassium stimulation. ProBDNF inhibits migration of CGCs in vitro, and the neutralizing antibodies to proBDNF enhance such migration as assayed by transwell culture. In addition, proBDNF incorporated into an agarose plug reduces granule cell migration from such CP-673451 cost plugs, whereas the neutralizing antibodies attract these cells towards the plug. The application of proBDNF into the lateral ventricle significantly inhibits migration of CGCs out of the proliferative zone into the internal granular cell layer, whereas the neutralizing

see more antibodies enhance this migration. Furthermore, the effects of proBDNF on cell migration are lost in p75NTR−/− mice. Our data suggest that proBDNF negatively regulates migration of CGCs and this effect is mediated by p75NTR. We conclude that proBDNF has an opposing role in migration of CGCs to that of mature BDNF. “
“Pathology department, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA The cAMP signaling pathway mediates synaptic plasticity and is essential for memory formation in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster,

mutations C59 research buy in the cAMP pathway lead to impaired olfactory learning. These mutant genes are preferentially expressed in the mushroom body (MB), an anatomical structure essential for learning. While cAMP-mediated synaptic plasticity is known to be involved in facilitation at the excitatory synapses, little is known about its function in GABAergic synaptic plasticity and learning. In this study, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques on Drosophila primary neuronal cultures, we demonstrate that focal application of an adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (FSK) suppressed inhibitory GABAergic postsynaptic currents (IPSCs). We observed a dual regulatory role of FSK on GABAergic transmission, where it increases overall excitability at GABAergic synapses, while simultaneously acting on postsynaptic GABA receptors to suppress GABAergic IPSCs. Further, we show that cAMP decreased GABAergic IPSCs in a PKA-dependent manner through a postsynaptic mechanism. PKA acts through the modulation of ionotropic GABA receptor sensitivity to the neurotransmitter GABA.

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