Nanoparticles of zinc, cuprum, iron, etc., received by now are up to 40 times less toxic than the salts [4, 5]. They are gradually absorbed while their ionic forms are immediately included into the biochemical reactions. By taking part in electron transfer, nanoparticles
increase the activity of plant enzymes, promote conversion of nitrates to ammonia, intensify plant respiration and photosynthesis processes, synthesize enzymes and amino acids, and enhance carbon check details and nitrogen nutrition and thus have a direct influence on the plant mineral nutrition [6–8]. Chickpea, an annual plant of the legume family, is widespread in countries with subtropical and tropical climates – India, Pakistan, Turkey, Iran, Australia, etc. Among the legumes, chickpeas are characterized by high nutritional value, amount of vitamins, and other biologically valuable substances which in turn causes high demand for this grain crop used for food and feed purposes
. Resistance to high temperatures and global climate changes have LBH589 mw created the favorable conditions for the formation of high yields of chickpea and attract the attention of producers of agricultural products. Chickpea plants are drought tolerant and are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen by forming the symbiotic relationships with nitrogen fixation microorganisms that not only meet the requirements of plants in nitrogen but also bring it into the ground . Most biotechnologies developed for the southern regions do not MK-2206 mouse give the desired effect in other
climatic zones [5, 10]. The colloidal solutions containing biologically active metals are now being widely used along with traditional biological preparations. There are preliminary conclusions about the positive effects of these preparations on the productivity and plant resistance to adverse environmental factors . This is especially important for growing plants on problem soils, i.e., soils PAK5 which have vital mineral elements in inaccessible to plant forms that lead to inhibition of plant growth and decrease of yields [1, 10]. The level of productivity of crops is largely determined by the soil microbial communities and their function . Processes specific to each group of soil microbiota are complicated and usually are closely related to the population activity of bacteria. Reported toxic effects of nanoparticles even more determine the necessity of the comprehensive research of colloidal solutions of metals prior to their use in agriculture. Taking this into account, we considered that an important step is to compare the impact of the traditional techniques of biotechnology (microbial preparation) and application of colloidal solution of metals, as well as the complex use of conventional and nanotechnology on the composition of microbiota of the plant rhizosphere.