“Objective: The purpose of this review is to summarize the

“Objective: The purpose of this review is to summarize the findings of randomized controlled trials assessing the advance provision of emergency contraception

(EC) to women 24 years of age or younger.\n\nDesign: We conducted a comprehensive search of the PubMed database from 1950 to November 11, 2009. This review includes seven studies that randomly assigned women aged 24 and younger to advance provision of EC or a control group.\n\nResults: All studies reviewed LDK378 molecular weight found that women assigned to advance provision were more likely to use EC, though not all reached statistical significance. Furthermore, studies assessing time to EC use (N = 4) found that those with advance provision used EC sooner following intercourse. Most studies found that women

assigned to advance provision of EC did not engage in more sexual risk taking behaviors (assessed by reported number of sexual partners, number of episodes of unprotected intercourse, and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections) or switch to less reliable contraceptive methods. Despite increased use and decreased time to use, women who were provided EC in advance did not report significantly lower pregnancy rates.\n\nConclusions: The existing literature suggests that among women 24 years of age or younger, advance provision has a positive impact on use and time to use Selleck ABT-263 of EC. Most findings indicate that increased use of EC does not have significant negative effects for ongoing contraceptive use or sexual risk taking behaviors. Despite increased use, advanced provision of EC has not been associated with a significant corresponding decrease in pregnancy.”
“Abnormally high transcription of the glial cell-line derived neurotrophic selleck compound factor (gdnf) gene in glioma cells is related to the hyperacetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) in its promoter region II, but the mechanism remains unclear. There are three consecutive putative binding sites for the transcription factor early growth response protein 1(Egr-1) in

promoter region II of the gdnf gene, and Egr-1 participates in gdnf gene transcription activation. Here we show that the acetylation level of H3K9 at Egr-1 binding sites in gdnf gene promoter region II in rat C6 astroglioma cells was significantly higher than that in normal astrocytes, and the binding capacity was also significantly higher. In C6 astroglioma cells, gdnf gene transcription significantly decreased after Egr-1 knockdown. In addition, the deletion or mutation of the Egr-1 binding site also significantly down-regulated the activity of promoter region II of this gene in vitro. When curcumin decreased the acetylation level of H3K9 at the Egr-1 binding site, the binding of Egr-1 to promoter region II and GDNF mRNA levels significantly decreased.

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