“OBJECTIVE: The transsphenoidal approach has been extended

“OBJECTIVE: The transsphenoidal approach has been extended in recent selleck chemical years from tumors of the sellar region to lesions involving other areas bordering the sphenoid sinus including the cavernous sinus, Meckel’s cave, middle cranial fossa, planum sphenoidal, suprasellar region, and clivus. The goal of this study was to examine various pneumatized extensions

of the sphenoid sinus that may facilitate extended approaches directed through the sinus.

METHODS: The sphenoid sinus and its surrounding structures were examined in 18 cadaver heads, and the results were correlated with the findings from 100 computed tomography images of the sinus. The sellar type of the sphenoid sinus in which the pneumatization extended beyond the anterior sellar wall was further classified according to the various extensions of the sinus.

RESULTS: The sellar type of the sphenoid sinus was classified into the following 6 basic types based on the direction of pneumatization: sphenoid body, lateral, clival, lesser wing, anterior, and combined. The recesses and prominences, KU55933 price formed by pneumatization of the sinus, act as “”windows”" opening

from the sinus in different areas of the cranial base and may facilitate minimally invasive access to lesions in the corresponding areas.

CONCLUSION: The variations in the extensions of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus may facilitate entry into areas bordering the sphenoid sinus and play a role in the selection

of a surgical approach to lesions bordering the sinus.”
“Purpose: We reviewed the current state of knowledge about urinary tract infection in patients with https://www.selleck.cn/products/SB-202190.html diabetes from the clinical and basic science perspectives. We identified key knowledge gaps and areas for further research.

Materials and Methods: We performed a focused literature search on certain topics, including clinical studies related to etiology and pathophysiology of urinary tract infection in patients with diabetes, urinary tract infection studies in animal models of diabetes and basic science studies of the molecular mechanisms of urinary tract infection.

Results: Individuals with diabetes are at higher risk for urinary tract infection Increased susceptibility in patients with diabetes is positively associated with increased duration and severity of diabetes. Clinical epidemiological data identifying mechanisms of increased urinary tract infection susceptibility in patients with diabetes are generally lacking and indicate only that urinary tract infections in women with and without diabetes are qualitatively similar in bacterial etiology and morbid sequelae. Existing animal models for diabetes have not been well characterized for urinary tract infection research.

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