The latter are mediated, at least in part, by
cholecystokinin (CKK),6 glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)7 and peptide YY CX-4945 solubility dmso (PYY),4 and are dependent on the length, and region, of small intestine exposed.8 Solids and liquids have different patterns of emptying. Solids empty in an overall linear pattern after an initial lag phase, while liquid emptying does not usually exhibit a lag phase and slows from an exponential to a linear pattern as the caloric content increases.9 The lag phase for solids reflects the time taken for meal redistribution from the proximal to the distal stomach and the grinding of solids into small particles by the antrum. When liquids and solids are consumed together, liquids empty preferentially. Gastroparesis refers to abnormal gastroduodenal motility characterized by delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction. The etiology is multifactorial and it is now recognised that diabetes is probably the most common cause. Gastric retention in diabetes was first noted by Boas in 1925,10 with subsequent radiological findings by Ferroir in 193711 noting that the stomach motor responses in diabetics are weaker than normal—“contractions are slow, lack vigour and die out quickly”.11,12 The first
detailed description of the association between delayed gastric MK-8669 datasheet emptying and diabetes was by Rundles in 1945, who reported that gastric emptying of barium was abnormally slow in 5 of 35 type 1 patients with peripheral neuropathy.1 In 1958, Kassander named the condition “gastroparesis diabeticorum” and commented that this syndrome was “more often MCE公司 overlooked than diagnosed”.13 While the prevalence of gastroparesis remains uncertain because of the lack of population-based studies, cross-sectional studies, which for the main part have employed radioisotopic methods, indicate that gastric emptying is abnormally delayed in 30–50% of outpatients with longstanding type 1 (as reported in the original
study of 45 patients)2 and type 2 diabetes.14,15 This prevalence was clearly underestimated in early studies, which employed less sensitive diagnostic methods to quantify gastric emptying. The reported prevalence is highest when gastric emptying of both solids and nutrient-containing liquids is quantified, either concurrently or separately, reflecting the relatively poor correlation between gastric emptying of solids and liquids in diabetes.16,17 Symptoms attributable to gastroparesis are reported in 5–12% of patients with diabetes in the community, but much higher rates are evident in patients evaluated in tertiary referral centres.18 Gastric emptying is not infrequently abnormally rapid in both type 1 and 2 diabetes.19 In the study reported in 1986, the patients were selected at random from an outpatient setting, and only patients with type 1 diabetes were included. While blood glucose levels were monitored, they were not stabilised.