The percentage of CD21lo expression B cells is a classification c

The percentage of CD21lo expression B cells is a classification criterion used for both the Freiberg and EUROclass classifications of CVID. To analyse the data further, patients were stratified by their EUROclass classification and then compared for CD21lo expression within the CD27+CD43lo–int subpopulation (Fig. 6d). No significant differences selleck compound could be seen between the difference classification groups, indicating further that the CD21lo expressing B cells within the putative B1 cell subpopulation are probably no more relevant than CD21lo expressing B cells in other B cell compartments. The discovery and

subsequent examination of the human counterparts of murine B1 B cells has been complicated by a lack of reliable discriminatory surface markers. Recent identification of a potential human B1 cell phenotype (CD20+CD27+CD43+) provided

an opportunity to identify this population rapidly in peripheral blood by flow cytometry for use in a routine diagnostic laboratory [12]. In this study, we established a whole blood method to investigate these putative B1 cells in humans. In clinical work it is well recognized this website that, where possible, whole blood analysis is the method of choice as it requires minimal blood volumes and minimizes ex-vivo manipulations of clinical specimens, and allows the most accurate quantitation of absolute numbers of B cells (and T cells) in patients’ blood [22]. We then examined the technical challenges

of using the immunophenotype CD20+CD27+CD43+ as a potential B1 cell signature in peripheral blood. We measured putative B1 B cells in a cohort of healthy controls and a small cohort of patients with CVID, a disease often associated with abnormalities in the CD20+CD27+ population and IgM/IgA production. The first difficulty complicating examination and accurate measurement of a CD20+CD27+CD43+ putative B1 B cell population was the identification of non-B cell contamination. Initial observations showed that positioning of the CD20 gate for detecting B cells impacted upon the percentage Cell press of the CD20+CD27+CD43hi cells, with stringent gating of CD20 B cells resulting in a reduction of these cells in our putative B1 B cell subpopulation. Further analysis showed that a third of CD20+CD27+CD43hi cells expressed CD3 but were negative for CD19. These findings were consistent with previous observations that normal and neoplastic B cells express significantly lower levels of CD43 compared to T cells [26]. In addition, while one study reported the existence of a small population of normal T cells expressing CD20 [27], others claim that this population is a flow cytometry artefact caused by T–B cell doublets [28].

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