The same applies to the Koyiaki pastoral ranch (n = 37, for a tot

The same applies to the Koyiaki pastoral ranch (n = 37, for a total area of 925 km2). Ottichilo (1999) and Ottichilo and Khaemba (2001) have demonstrated the reliability of the estimates of wildlife and livestock

population sizes from the DRSRS count method. From the 50 surveys, we selected counts of 13 wild herbivore species, comprising four small-sized herbivores: Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, impala and warthog, five medium-sized herbivores: topi, hartebeest, wildebeest and zebra, four large herbivores: eland, buffalo, giraffe and elephant; and three species of livestock, namely sheep and goats (which are lumped together during surveys as ‘sheep and goats’ because they occur in mixed herds that are hard to distinguish reliably

from the air) and cattle to represent a range of functional groups based on body size, feeding and foraging styles MDV3100 (Table 1). Of the 50 surveys 33 were conducted in the wet season and 17 in the dry season. Averaging population density estimates for each species in each grid cell over all surveys conducted in each season in 1 year produced 20 surveys for the wet season (late November–June) and 12 for the dry season (July-early November), which we used for analysis. Ground mapping census of wildlife and livestock Two ground mapping censuses of wildlife and livestock in the MMNR and the adjacent pastoral ranches were conducted in early November 1999 and 2002 when dry conditions prevailed and the grass was still short, due to heavy grazing by migratory wildlife (Reid et al. 2003). The first census

covered an area of 1,544.2 km2, including sections of Koyiaki and Lemek pastoral ranches, and the MMNR. This census was carried out by 12 teams totaling 40 Idelalisib people using 12 vehicles in both the reserve and the ranches. The second census covered 2,212 km2 and included Koyiaki, Lemek, Siana and a small part of southwestern Olkinyei ranches. This census was carried out by 22 teams totaling 84 people. The census area was partitioned into contiguous 0.33 × 0.33 km2 sub-blocks to obtain fine resolution counts. The teams counted 7,606 sub-blocks in the reserve and 6,295 sub-blocks in the ranches in 1,999 and 11,117 sub-blocks in the reserve and 8,794 sub-blocks in the ranches in 2002 (Reid et al. 2003; Ogutu et al. 2010). The sampling teams navigated vehicles down the centers of each 1 × 1 km2 block and allocated all animals observed into one of the nine nearest 0.33 × 0.33 km2 sub-blocks using a global positioning system (GPS). The counts per 0.33 × 0.33 km2 sub-blocks were converted to PR-171 cost densities per km2 by multiplying them by nine. The mean density and corresponding standard errors were calculated as the average density over all sub-blocks in the reserve and ranches. The mean count for each species in the reserve was expressed as the average of the estimated population size over all the per 0.33 × 0.33 km2 sub-blocks in the reserve. The same applies to Koyiaki pastoral ranch.

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