The use of stones as an auditory

stimulant to sustain or

The use of stones as an auditory

stimulant to sustain or enhance interactions with dolphins by artificial means may not be in the best interest of an endangered species, which already faces a range of challenges due to human activity. “
“Currently, there are three recognized ecotypes (or species) of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Antarctic waters, including type B, a putative prey specialist on seals, which we refer to as “pack ice killer whale” (PI killer whale). During January 2009, we spent a total of 75.4 h observing three different groups of PI killer whales hunting off the western Antarctic Peninsula. Observed prey taken included 16 seals and 1 Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) were taken almost exclusively selleck screening library (14/15 identified seal kills), despite the fact that they represented only 15% of 365 seals identified on ice floes; the whales entirely avoided taking crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaga; 82% relative abundance) and leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx;

3%). Of the seals killed, the whales took 12/14 (86%) off ice floes using a cooperative wave-washing behavior; they produced 120 waves during 22 separate attacks and successfully took 12/16 (75%) of the Weddell seals attacked. The mean number of waves produced per successful attack was 4.1 (range 1–10) and the mean attack duration was 30.4 min (range 15–62). Seal remains that we examined from one of the kills provided evidence of meticulous postmortem prey processing perhaps best termed “butchering. “
“We used mitochondrial

and nuclear genetic this website markers to investigate population structure of common bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, around the main Hawaiian Islands. Though broadly distributed throughout the world’s oceans, bottlenose dolphins are known to form small populations in coastal waters. Recent photo-identification data suggest the same is true in Hawaiian waters. We found genetic differentiation among (mtDNA ΦST= 0.014–0.141, microsatellite F’ST= 0.019–0.050) and low dispersal rates between (0.17–5.77 dispersers per generation) the main Hawaiian Island groups. MCE Our results are consistent with movement rates estimated from photo-identification data and suggest that each island group supports a demographically independent population. Inclusion in our analyses of samples collected near Palmyra Atoll provided evidence that the Hawaiian Islands are also occasionally visited by members of a genetically distinct, pelagic population. Two of our samples exhibited evidence of partial ancestry from Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus), a species not known to inhabit the Hawaiian Archipelago. Our findings have important implications for the management of Hawaiian bottlenose dolphins and raise concerns about the vulnerability to human impacts of pelagic species in island ecosystems.

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