They modulate the gamma-secretase product selleck chemicals LY2886721 spectrum (i.e., amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides of different length) and induce a shift from toxic A beta 42 to shorter A beta species such as A beta 38 with no or minimal effect on the overall rate of gamma-secretase cleavage. We describe the identification of a series of 4-hydroxypyridin-2-one selleck chemical derivatives, which display a novel type of gamma-secretase modulation with Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries equipotent inhibition of A beta 42 and A beta 38 peptide species.
The Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces an intercellular Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries alkyl quinolone signaling molecule, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal. The pqs quorum sensing communication system that is characteristic for P. aeruginosa regulates the production of virulence factors.
Therefore, we consider the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries pqs system a novel target to limit P.
aeruginosa pathogenicity. Here, we present small molecules targeting a key player of the pqs system, PqsR. A rational design strategy in combination with surface plasmon resonance biosensor analysis led to the identification of PqsR binders. Determination Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of thermodynamic Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries binding signatures and functional characterization in E. coli guided the hit optimization, resulting in the potent hydroxamic acid derived PqsR antagonist 11 (IC50 = 12.5 mu M). Remarkably it displayed a comparable potency in P. aeruginosa (IC50 = 23.6 mu M) and reduced the production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. Beyond Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries this, site-directed mutagenesis together with thermodynamic analysis provided insights into the energetic characteristics of protein-ligand interactions.
Thus the identified PqsR antagonists are promising scaffolds for further drug design efforts against this important pathogen.
Although small molecule actin modulators have been widely used as research tools, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries only one cell-permeable small molecule inhibitor of actin depolymerization (jasplakinolide) is commercially Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries available. We report that the natural product cucurbitacin E inhibits actin depolymerization and show that its mechanism of action is different from jasplakinolide. In assays using pure fluorescently labeled actin, cucurbitacin E specifically affects depolymerization without affecting polymerization. It inhibits actin depolymerization at substoichiometric concentrations up to 1:6 cucurbitacin E:actin.
Cucurbitacin Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries E specifically binds to filamentous actin (F-actin) forming a covalent bond at residue Cys257, but not to monomeric actin (G-actin).
On selleck inhibitor the basis of its compatibility with phalloidin staining, we show that cucurbitacin E occupies a different binding site on actin filaments. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Using loss of fluorescence after localized photoactivation, we found that cucurbitacin E inhibits selelck kinase inhibitor actin depolymerization in live cells. Cucurbitacin E is a widely available plant-derived natural product, making it a useful tool to study actin dynamics in cells and actin-based processes such as cytokinesis.