This role for IL-17 in angiogenesis is supported by recent findin

This role for IL-17 in angiogenesis is supported by recent findings that local overexpression of IL-17 in C57BL/6 mice leads to arthritis, with increased vascularity along with angiogenesis.[83, 96] IL-17 can also up-regulate the constitutive release of other angiogenic factors from synovial fibroblasts, including keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), all of which are involved in the proliferation of endothelial Dinaciclib price cells.[81, 97] Recently, TNF-positive

Th17 cells have been discussed as potential dangerous cells in driving persistent arthritis in patient with early RA.[78] TNF and IL-17 synergistically have also been proposed to induce the alternative

complement pathway proteins C3 and factor B, both of which are up-regulated in RA synovial tissue.[98] In conclusion, these data strongly suggest that Th17 is a key effector cell in driving the acute phase to the chronic form of RA.[89] A large number of cytokines are active in the joints of patients with RA. It is now clear that these cytokines play a fundamental role in the processes that buy Obeticholic Acid cause inflammation, articular destruction and the co-morbidities associated with RA.[99] Two down-stream mechanisms by which the cartilage degradation occurs have been elucidated: the simultaneous inhibition of proteoglycan and collagen synthesis and the catabolism of the extracellular matrix. It is thought that inflammation in the adjacent synovial tissue and fluids evokes changes in the metabolic

activity of chondrocytes.[88] Furthermore, IL-17 appears to play an active role in the induction of cartilage matrix breakdown through the dysregulation of chondrocyte metabolism.[78, 100] In RA, imbalance occurs in the main cytokine system, including IL-1, IL-6, IL-13, IL-15, IL-18, IL-22, IL-33 and TNF. The joint destruction seen in RA is caused not only by this cytokine imbalance, but also by specific Clomifene effects of the Wnt system and osteoprotegerin on osteoclasts, as well as by dysregulation in matrix production responsible for cartilage damage.[101] Although IL-17F has many biologically overlapping effects with IL-17A, IL-17F is less potent, for example, in activating synovial fibroblasts.[102] IL-17F has been shown to have a cartilage destructive potential effect in vitro.[59] In a mouse model, intra-articular injection of IL-17 into the knee joint resulted in joint inflammation and damage. Moreover, it is shown that blocking IL-17/IL-17R signaling could be effective in the control of RA symptoms and in the prevention of joint destruction.[103] Like IL-17A, IL-17F regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression by a very similar but not identical signaling pathway involving IL-17RA and IL-17RC.[104] Furthermore, data from an experimental model of arthritis indicated IL-17 receptor signaling is a critical pathway in turning acute synovitis into a chronic destructive arthritis.

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