We present here the crystal structures of unassembled recombinant

We present here the crystal structures of unassembled recombinant WUPyV and KIPyV VP1 pentamers at resolutions of 2.9 and 2.55 angstrom, respectively. The WUPyV and KIPyV VP1 core structures fold into the same beta-sandwich that is a hallmark of all polyomavirus VP1 proteins crystallized GDC-0449 nmr to date. However, differences in sequence translate into profoundly different surface loop structures in KIPyV and WUPyV VP1 proteins. Such loop structures have not been observed for other polyomaviruses, and they provide initial clues about the possible interactions of these viruses

with cell surface receptors.”
“Salicylate has been shown to protect animals and people from the gentamicin-induced hearing loss. The objective of our study was to determine if salicylate is otoprotective in vitro.

In this fashion, we wanted to validate the use of explant culture system for future studies on the ototoxicity check details prevention. In addition, we wanted to find out if salicylate protects from the ototoxicity of other aminoglycosides. As a model, we used the membranous cochlear tissues containing the organ of Corti, spiral limbus and spiral ganglion neurons dissected from the cochleas of p3-p5 Wistar pups. The explants were divided into apical, medial and basal parts and cultured in presence or absence of 100 mu M gentamicin, 100 mu M neomycin and 5 mM salicylate. Following the tissue fixation and staining with phalloidin-TRITC, the number of inner and outer hair cells (IHCs. OHCs) was scored under the fluorescent microscope. Presence of 5 mM salicylate in explants cultures exposed to 100 mu M gentamicin significantly reduced the loss of IHCs and OHCs, as compared to explants exposed to gentamicin selleckchem alone. In contrast, neomycin-induced auditory hair cell loss remained unaffected by the presence of salicylate. Our results corroborate earlier in vivo findings and validate the use of cochlear explants for future studies on ototoxicity and its prevention. Moreover, the inability of salicylate to prevent neomycin-induced ototoxicity implies possible differences

between the mechanisms of auditory hair cell loss induced by gentamicin and neomycin. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Different brain areas are thought to be integrated into large-scale networks to support cognitive function. Recent approaches for investigating structural organization and functional coordination within these networks involve measures of connectivity among brain areas. We review studies combining in vivo structural and functional brain connectivity data, where (a) structural connectivity analysis, mostly based on diffusion tensor imaging is paired with voxel-wise analysis of functional neuroimaging data or (b) the measurement of functional connectivity based on covariance analysis is guided/aided by structural connectivity data.

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