Also, activation of the transcription factor CREB induced by micr

Also, activation of the transcription factor CREB induced by microwave irradiation was inhibited by SB203580. Heat shock treatment

at 45 degrees C had a strong toxic effect on PC 12m3 cells, whereas microwave treatment had no toxic effect on PC12m3 cells. These findings indicate that p38 MAPK is responsible for the survival of PC 12m3 cells and might induce neurite outgrowth via a CREB signaling pathway when buy SCH772984 subjected to microwave irradiation. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Estrogens attenuate renal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), an effect that is related to nitric oxide production in the post-ischemic kidney. The compound 17 beta-estradiol (E-2-beta) acting via estrogen receptors (ERs) is known to activate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. We determined if this pathway contributes to the renoprotective effect of E-2-beta in the uninephrectomized ischemia reperfusion rat model of acute renal injury. Treatment with E-2-beta suppressed the I/R-induced increases in blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, urine flow, and fractional excretion of sodium while augmenting creatinine clearance, renal blood flow, and urine osmolality, indicating attenuation of renal injury. Phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS protein was significantly increased

30-60min after reperfusion in estradiol-treated compared selleck chemicals to vehicle-treated rats. The protective effects of E-2-beta and protein phosphorylation were reversed by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin or the ER antagonist tamoxifen. Furthermore, the E-2-beta-induced renoprotective effects were not seen in eNOS knockout mice with renal injury. We conclude that the E-2-beta-induced renoprotective effect

is due to activation LY411575 supplier of the PI3K/Akt pathway followed by increased eNOS phosphorylation in the post-ischemic kidney.”
“Disturbances of the orbitofrontal-striatal pathways in humans have been associated with several psychopathologies including obsessive-compulsive disorder and drug addiction. In nonhuman primates, different subareas of the orbitofrontal cortex project topographically to central and ventromedial parts of the striatum. Relatively little is known about the anatomical organization of the rat orbital cortex while there is a growing interest in this cortical area from a functional and behavioral point of view. The aim of the present neuroanatomical tracing study was to determine in rats the striatal target area of the projections of the orbital cortex as well as the topographical organization within these projections. To this end, anterograde tracers were injected in the different cytoarchitectonically distinct subareas of the orbital cortex. The results show that the individual orbital areas, i.e.

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