However, the context within which
brain imaging data are collected is a social context that may induce anxiety and stress. Several hormones have been shown to be responsive to environmental stressors. These stress responses may impact ability to successfully complete the procedure or collect imaging data. To investigate these issues, we measured salivary cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and testosterone in 160 adolescents during both a simulation (practice) and actual MRI. Hormones were all responsive to the MRI scan, indicating that an MRI scan itself can induce a stress response, with some hormones predicting the likelihood that an adolescent could successfully complete the scan with adequate data. The simulation scan did not hinder hormonal responses to the actual MRI. These data suggest that researchers
should consider the effects of heightened hormonal reactivity PD0332991 to the scanning environment; adolescent’s reactions to brain imaging may contribute to image data loss and may potentially influence outcome measures. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The auditory system codes spatial locations in a way that deviates from the spatial representations found in other modalities. This difference is especially striking in the cortex, where neurons form topographical maps of visual and tactile space but where auditory space is represented through a population rate code. In this hemifield code, sound source location is represented in the activity of two widely tuned opponent populations, one tuned to the right
and selleckchem the other to the left side of auditory space. Scientists are only beginning to uncover Pritelivir how this coding strategy adapts to various spatial processing demands. This review presents the current understanding of auditory spatial processing in the cortex. To this end, the authors consider how various implementations of the hemifield code may exist within the auditory cortex and how these may be modulated by the stimulation and task context. As a result, a coherent set of neural strategies for auditory spatial processing emerges.”
“Aims: To determine the genogroup distribution of F-specific coliphages in aquatic environments using the plaque isolation procedure combined with genogroup-specific real-time PCR.
Methods and Results: Thirty water samples were collected from a wastewater treatment plant and a river in the Kofu basin in Japan on fine weather days. F-specific coliphages were detected in all tested samples, 187 (82%) of 227 phage plaques isolated were classified into one of the 4 F-specific RNA (F-RNA) coliphage genogroups and 24 (11%) plaques were F-specific DNA coliphages. Human genogroups II and III F-RNA coliphages were more abundant in raw sewage than animal genogroups I and IV, excluding one sample that was suspected to be heavily contaminated with sporadic heavy animal faeces.