Furthermore, changes in protein levels in response to growth phase may help in hypothesizing
regulatory elements that may be targeted for increasing product yields during monoculture and co-culture fermentation processes. Below we discuss key proteins involved in carbohydrate utilization and transport, glycolysis, energy storage, pentose phosphate production, pyruvate catabolism, end-product synthesis, and energy production. Proteins involved in STAT inhibitor cellulose and (hemi)cellulose degradation and transport Cellulose hydrolysis C. thermocellum encodes a number of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) allowing for efficient degradation of cellulose and associated polysaccharides
(Carbohydrate Active Enzyme database; http://www.cazy.org/). Torin 1 These include (i) endo-β-glucanases, which cleave internal amorphous regions of the cellulose chain into shorter soluble oligosaccharides, (ii) exo-β-glucanases (cellodextrinases and cellobiohydrolases), which act in a possessive manner on reducing or nonreducing ends of the cellulose chain liberating shorter cellodextrins, and (iii) β-glucosidases (cellodextrin and MEK162 ic50 cellobiose phosphorylases), which hydrolyze soluble cellodextrins ultimately O-methylated flavonoid into glucose . Other glycosidases that allow hydrolysis of lignocellulose include xylanases, lichenases, laminarinases, β-xylosidases, β-galactosidases, and β-mannosidases, while pectin processing
is accomplished via pectin lyase, polygalacturonate hydrolase, and pectin methylesterase [64, 65]. These glycosidases may be secreted as free enzymes or may be assembled together into large, cell-surface anchored protein complexes (“cellulosomes”) allowing for the synergistic breakdown of cellulosic material. The cellulosome consists of a scaffoldin protein (CipA) which contains (i) a cellulose binding motifs (CBM) allowing for the binding of the scaffoldin to the cellulose fiber, (ii) nine type I cohesion domains with that mediate binding of various glycosyl hydrolases via their type I dockerin domains, and (iii) a type II dockerin domain which mediates binding to the type II cohesion domain found on the cell-surface anchoring proteins. The cell-surface anchoring proteins are in turn noncovalently bound to the peptidoglycan cell wall via C-terminal surface-layer homology (SLH) repeats . During growth on cellulose, the cellulosome is attached to the cell in early exponential phase, released during late exponential phase, and is found attached to cellulose during stationary phase .